Effect of friction stir welding parameters on the residual stress distribution of Al-2024-T6 alloy
The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of the main parameters of friction stir welding (FSW) on the residual stresses remained in the FSW of Al 2024-T6. The main parameters were tool rotational speed and tool transverse speed. The effect of these parameters on the residual stresses was studied in both finite element simulation and hole drilling strain gauge measurement. The results showed a good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental outcomes. The change in transverse speed from 25 to 31.5 mm/min resulted in increase of longitudinal residual stresses in welding centerline in which the longitudinal residual stress was increased at the tool rotational speed of 1120 rpm and 1600 rpm about 12.5% and 2.67%, respectively. The results showed that at the low rotational speed, the strain rate had the most effect on the residual stresses whereas at the high rotational speed, some residual stress was released due to the generated heat in the weld zone.