• Yean Sze Ong Graduate College of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
  • Noor Fareen Abdul Rahim Graduate College of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
  • Haniruzila Md. Hanifah Graduate College of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia



Psychological ownership, Intention to stay, Employee engagement, Self-determination theory, Malaysian research universities


In the context of Malaysian research universities, this study examined how psychological ownership influenced Malaysian academics’ intention to stay. Based on self-determination theory, a model was developed to investigate how psychological ownership and employee engagement might improve the intention to stay. A questionnaire survey was used to gather the data, which was then analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results show that psychological ownership positively and significantly impacts employee engagement. The intention of an employee to stay is also positive and significantly impacted by employee engagement. In addition, when employing employee engagement as a mediator, psychological ownership also revealed a significant indirect effect on the intention to stay. The novelty of this study contributed to the body of knowledge on psychological ownership and intention to stay while also shedding light on the mediation of employee engagement in the context of Malaysian research universities. The findings of this study also have significant practical implications for academics and policymakers who wish to understand the roles of psychological ownership and employee engagement that contribute to the intention to stay among academics.


Ahn, J., & Back, K.-J. (2019). The role of autonomy, competence and relatedness: Applying self-determination theory to the integrated resort setting. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(1), 87–104.

Ainer, C. D., Subramaniam, C., & Arokiasamy, L. (2019). Determinants of turnover intention in the private universities in Malaysia: A conceptual paper. Global Business & Management Research, 11(1), 1–8.

Akhtar, M. S., Salleh, L. M., Ghafar, N. H., Khurro, M. A., & Mehmood, S. A. (2018). Conceptualizing the impact of perceived organizational support and psychological contract fulfillment on employees’ paradoxical intentions of stay and leave. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 7(2.5), 9–14.

Akhtar, M. S., Salleh, L. M., & Mehmood, S. A. (2017). Conceptualization of paradoxical outcomes on employees’ intentions to stay and intentions to leave. Science International-Lahore, 29(6), 1215–1218.

Alemu, D. S., & Pykhtina, O. (2020). To leave or to stay: Faculty mobility in the Middle East. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 16(1), 1–18.

Andrew, O. C., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 498–508.

Ashraf, M., Mangi, R. A., & Laghari, M. K. (2020). Study of workplace ostracism, employee engagement and interacting effect of psychological capital (PSCAP): A conservation of resources theory perspective. Pakistan Business Review, 22(1), 43–59.

Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Crossley, C. D., & Luthans, F. (2009). Psychological ownership: Theoretical extensions, measurement and relation to work outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 30(2), 173–191.

Awal, R., Kumar, B., Saha, P., & Saha, A. (2020). Employees’ job satisfaction, job alternatives, and turnover intention: Evidence from private banks, Bangladesh. Economic Insights -Trends and Challenges, 9(73), 67–76.

Azman, N., Omar, I. C., Yunus, A. S. M., & Zain, A. N. M. (2016). Academic promotion in Malaysian public universities: a critical look at issues and challenges. Oxford Review of Education, 42(1), 71–88.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.

Beck, R., & Harter, J. (2015). Managers account for 70% of variance in employee engagement. Retrieved September 10, 2018, from variance-employee-engagement.aspx

Bello, J. S. A., & Steil, A. V. (2020). Intent to leave versus intent to stay in technology organizations. International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals, 11(2), 79–90.

Biswas, S., & Bhatnagar, J. (2013). Mediator analysis of employee engagement: Role of perceived organizational support, P-O fit, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. VIKALPA, 38(1), 27–41.

Blume, A. P. G. de, & Candela, L. L. (2018). Perceptions of teaching, research, and service expertise, workload, organizational support, and satisfaction among U.S. faculty members’ intent to stay in Tier 1 or Tier 2 organizations: A structural equation model. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 17(4), 1–27.

Book, L., Gatling, A., & Kim, J. S. (2019). The effects of leadership satisfaction on employee engagement, loyalty, and retention in the hospitality industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 18(3), 368–393.

Broeck, A. Van Den, Ferris, D. L., Chang, C. H., & Rosen, C. C. (2016). A review of self-determination theory’s basic psychological needs at work. Journal of Management, 42(5), 1195–1229.

Brown, G., Crossley, C., & Robinson, S. L. (2014). Psychological ownership, territorial behavior, and being perceived as a team contributor: The critical role of trust in the work environment. Personnel Psychology, 67(2), 463–485.

Buchko, A. A. (1992). Employee ownership, attitudes, and turnover: An empirical assessment. Human Relations, 45(7), 711–733.

Cardy, R. L., & Lengnick-hall, M. L. (2011). Will they stay or will they go? Exploring a customer-oriented approach to employee retention. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(2), 213–217.

Chamchan, C., & Kittisuksathit, S. (2019). Generation Y employees in Thai workplaces: What make them stay or leave. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 19(1), 49–65.

Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In V. E. Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications (pp. 655–690). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Chiniara, M., & Bentein, K. (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124–141.

Chinomona, E. (2017). Antecedents of employee intention to stay: A study of employees in Zimbabwean SMEs. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 9(5), 57–73.

Chinomona, E., & Dhurup, M. (2015). The role of organisational commitment in the organisational citizenship behaviour and employee intention to stay relationship: The case of Zimbabwe. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5(7), 47–58.

Cho, S., Johanson, M. M., & Guchait, P. (2009). Employees intent to leave: A comparison of determinants of intent to leave versus intent to stay. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(3), 374–381.

Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 73(3), 309–319.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Crome, E., Meyer, L., Bosanquet, A., & Hughes, L. (2019). Improving engagement in an early career academic setting: Can existing models guide early career academic support strategies? Higher Education Research & Development, 38(4), 717–732.

Dabke, D., & Patole, S. (2014). Do perceived organizational support, perceived superior support, goal clarity, perceived career progression opportunities and job satisfaction predict intention to stay? International Journal of Research in Management & Technology, 4(2), 114–121.

Das, P. (2020). The relationship of employee engagement and affective commitment with turnover intentions of banking employees. Mukt Shabd Journal, IX(V), 896–914.

Das, S. P., & Mishra, P. (2014). Employee engagement: Developing a conceptual framework. The International Journal of Business & Management, 2(6), 224–229.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Dhir, S., & Shukla, A. (2019). Role of organizational image in employee engagement and performance. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 0(0), 1–20.

Divya, K., & Srinivasan, P. T. (2014). Psychological ownership: It’s relationship with interpersonal trust and work outcomes. In Twelfth AIMS International Conference on Management (pp. 1501–1509).

Fernandes, K. K., & Balu, L. (2018). Impact of employee engagement on an employee’s intention to stay at Rayoner Hospitality. International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, 7(3), 36–40.

Florkowski, G. W. (1989). The organizational impact of profit sharing. The Academy of Management Review, 12(4), 622–636.

Franke, G., & Sarstedt, M. (2019). Heuristics versus statistics in discriminant validity testing: a comparison of four procedures. Internet Research, 29(3), 430–447.

Gallup. (2016). Higher education employee engagement: The engaged university. Retrieved March 20, 2019, from

George, C. (2015). Retaining professional workers: What makes them stay? Employee Relations, 37(1), 102–121.

Ghosh, P., Rai, A., Chauhan, R., Baranwal, G., & Srivastava, D. (2016). Rewards and recognition to engage private bank employees: Exploring the “obligation dimension.” Management Research Review, 39(12), 1738–1751.

Ghosh, P., Satyawadi, R., Joshi, J. P., & Shadman, M. (2013). Who stays with you? Factors predicting employees’ intention to stay. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 21(3), 288–312.

Gilani, H., & Cunningham, L. (2017). Employer branding and its influence on employee retention: A literature review. The Marketing Review, 17(2), 239–256.

Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.

Hackbarth, N., Harris, D., & Wright, H. (2016). 2016 employee engagement trends. Retrieved March 30, 2019, from

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2018). Multivariate data analysis (8th ed.). United Kingdom: Annabel Ainscow.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2–24.

Haivas, S., Hofmans, J., & Pepermans, R. (2013). Volunteer engagement and intention to quit from a self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(9), 1869–1880.

Han, Z., Wang, Q., & Yan, X. (2019). How responsible leadership motivates employees to engage in organizational citizenship behavior for the environment: A double-mediation model. Sustainability, 11(605), 1–13.

Harter, J. (2015). Engage your long-time employees to improve performance. Retrieved September 10, 2018, from -your-long-time-employees-to -improve-performance

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. New Challenges to International Marketing Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–319.

Holtom, B. C., Mitchell, T. R., Lee, T. W., & Eberly, M. B. (2008). Turnover and retention research: A glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future. The Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 231–274.

Hundera, M. B. (2014). Factors affecting academic staff turnover intentions and the moderating effect of gender. International Journal of Research in Business Management, 2(9), 57–70.

Ibrahim, M., & Al Falasi, S. (2014). Employee loyalty and engagement in UAE public sector. Employee Relations, 36(5), 562–582.

Imam, A., Shah, F. T., & Raza, A. (2013). Mediating role of job stress between workplace discrimination (Gender discrimination-glass ceiling) and employee attitudinal outcomes (Job satisfaction and motivation) in banking sector of Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 18(2), 264–274.

Ismail, N. H., & Noor, A. (2016). Occupational stress and its associated factors among academician in a research university, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 16(1), 81–91.

Jakada, M. B. (2019). Moderating effect of psychological ownership on the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance among academic staff of federal university, Dutse, Nigeria: conceptual model. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 11(1), 40–46.

Johari, J., Yean, T. F., Adnan, Z., Yahya, K. K., & Ahmad, M. N. (2012). Promoting employee intention to stay: Do human resource management practices matter? International Journal Economics and Management, 6(2), 396–416.

Kadiresan, V., Arumugam, T., Selamat, M. H., & Parasuraman, B. (2016). Pull factors, career anchor and turnover of academicians in Malaysian higher education. Journal of International Business and Economics, 16(4), 59–80.

Kadiresan, V., Kamil, N. M., Mazlan, M. R., Musah, M. B., & Selamat, M. H. (2016). The influence of human resource practices on employee retention: A case study. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 6(3), 122–148.

Kandasamy, S., Munusamy, K., & Arumugam, T. (2018). A descriptive analysis on usage of online knowledge sharing technology in Malaysian research universities. Journal of Progressive Research in Social Sciences (JPRSS), 7(1), 494–501.

Kavya, M. L., & Padmavathy, G. (2017). Employee engagement: A review on engagement models. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 3(2), 871–877.

Kim, J., & Gatling, A. (2018). The impact of using a virtual employee engagement platform (VEEP) on employee engagement and intention to stay. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 242–259.

Kim, W., Han, S. J., & Park, J. (2019). Is the role of work engagement essential to employee performance or “nice to have”? Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(4), 1–16.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. NY: Guilford Press.

Lee, K., Makri, M., & Scandura, T. (2019). The effect of psychological ownership on corporate entrepreneurship: Comparisons between family and nonfamily top management team members. Family Business Review, 32(1), 10–30.

Li, X., Zhang, Y., Yan, D., Wen, F., & Zhang, Y. (2020). Nurses’ intention to stay: The impact of perceived organizational support, job control and job satisfaction. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76(5), 1141–1150.

López-Meneses, E., Sirignano, F. M., Reyes-Tejedor, M., Cunzio, M., & Gómez-Galán, J. (2017). European innovations in education: Research models and teaching applications. Seville, ES: AFOE.

Lu, L., Liu, J., & Zhao, N. (2017). Why employees stay: The roles of psychological ownership, territoriality and work relationship closeness in affecting employee turnover intention. Frontiers of Business Research in China, 11(10), 186–207.

Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3–30.

Malinowska, D., Tokarz, A., & Wardzichowska, A. (2018). Job autonomy in relation to work engagement and workaholism: Mediation of autonomous and controlled work motivation. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 31(4), 445–458.

Markos, S., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89–96.

Martela, F., & Riekki, T. J. J. (2018). Autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence: A multicultural comparison of the four pathways to meaningful work. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(0), 1–14.

Martela, F., Ryan, R. M., & Steger, M. F. (2018). Meaningfulness as satisfaction of autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence: Comparing the four satisfactions and positive affect as predictors of meaning in life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(5), 1261–1282.

Matongolo, A., Kasekende, F., & Mafabi, S. (2018). Employer branding and talent retention: Perceptions of employees in higher education institutions in Uganda. Industrial and Commercial Training, 50(5), 213–233.

Mayfield, J., & Mayfield, M. (2012). The relationship between leader motivating language and self-efficacy: A partial least squares model analysis. Journal of Business Communication, 49(4), 357–376.

Md-Sidin, S., Sambasivan, M., & Muniandy, N. (2010). Impact of psychological ownership on the performance of business school lecturers. Journal of Education for Business, 85(1), 50–56.

Mehrez, A., & Bakri, A. (2019). The impact of human resource practices on job satisfaction and intention to stay in emerging economies: Model development and empirical investigation among high caliber governmental employees in Qatar. Management Science Letters, 9(0), 425–442.

Meyer, J. P. (2017). Has engagement had its day: What’s next and does it matter? Organizational Dynamics, 46(2), 87–95.

Meyer, J. P., & Gagné, M. (2008). Employee engagement from a self-determination theory perspective. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 60–62.

Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2014). National education statistic: Higher education sector 2013 (1st ed.). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia.

Ministry of Higher Education. (2019). Public universities. In Statistik pendidikan tinggi 2018 (pp. 8–45). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Ministry of Education Malaysia (Higher Education).

Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. (2020). Public universities. In Statistik pendidikan tinggi 2019 (pp. 9–49). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Ministry of Education Malaysia (Higher Education).

Naim, M. F., & Lenka, U. (2017). How does mentoring contribute to Gen Y employees’ intention to stay? An indian perspective. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 314–335.

Naim, M. F., & Lenkla, U. (2016). Knowledge sharing as an intervention for Gen Y employees’ intention to stay. Industrial and Commercial Training, 48(3), 142–148.

Nancarrow, S., Bradbury, J., Pit, S. W., & Ariss, S. (2014). Intention to stay and intention to leave: Are they two sides of the same coin? A cross-sectional structural equation modelling study among health and social care workers. Journal of Occupational Health, 56(4), 292–300.

Ng’ethe, J. M., Iravo, M. E., & Namusonge, G. S. (2012). Determinants of academic staff retention in public universities in Kenya: Empirical review. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(13), 205–212.

Olckers, C. (2013). Psychological ownership: Development of an instrument. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2), 1–13.

Olckers, C., & Du Plessis, Y. (2015). Psychological ownership as a requisite for talent retention: The voice of highly skilled employees. European Journal of International Management, 9(1), 52–73.

Olckers, C., & Enslin, C. (2016). Psychological ownership in relation to workplace trust and turnover intent. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 26(2), 119–126.

Owusu, V. K., & Gregar, A. (2021). Measuring the antecedents of turnover intentions: Perspectives of private healthcare employees in a less developed economy. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 19(4), 232–247.

Parfyonova, N. M., Meyer, J. P., Espinoza, J. A., Anderson, B. K., Cameron, K. A., Daljeet, K. N., & Vaters, C. (2019). Managerial support for employees’ psychological needs: A multidimensional approach. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 51(2), 122–134.

Pathak, D., & Srivastava, S. (2017). What makes employees stay? Role of psychological empowerment in organisational commitment-turnover intentions relationship: A study on Indian managers. International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, 14(2), 180–197.

Peters, D., Calvo, R. A., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Designing for motivation, engagement and wellbeing in digital experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(MAY), 1–15.

Pierce, J. L., Rubenfeld, S. A., & Morgan, S. (1991). Employee ownership: A conceptual model of process and effects. Academy of Management Review, 16(1), 121–144.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717–731.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.

Rahman, A., Björk, P., & Ravald, A. (2020). Exploring the effects of service provider’s organizational support and empowerment on employee engagement and well-being. Cogent Business and Management, 7(1), 1–19.

Ramayah, T., Lee, J. W. C., & In, J. B. C. (2011). Network collaboration and performance in the tourism sector. Service Business, 5(4), 411–428.

Rathakrishnan, T., Imm, N. S., & Kok, T. K. (2016). Turnover intentions of lecturers in private universities in Malaysia. Pertanika Journals of Social Sciences & Humanities, 24(S), 129–146.

Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Self-determination theory in human resource development: New directions and practical considerations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(2), 133–147.

Riyanto, S., Endri, E., & Herlisha, N. (2021). Effect of work motivation and job satisfaction on employee performance: Mediating role of employee engagement. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 19(3), 162–174.

Rosli, N. D., & Hassim, A. A. (2017). The relationship between intrinsic motivation and job engagement among Gen Y employees at National Heart Institute, work-life balance as moderating effect. Journal of Administrative Science, 14(1), 1–15.

Rothbard, N. P. (2001). Enriching or depleting? The dynamics of engagement in work and family roles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(4), 655–684.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.

Sánchez-Cardona, I., Vera, M., & Marrero-Centeno, J. (2021). Job resources and employees’ intention to stay: The mediating role of meaningful work and work engagement. Journal of Management and Organization, 0(0), 1–17.

Sanjeevkumar, V. (2012). A study on employee’s intention to stay in public companies, Kedah, Malaysia. Zenith International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, 2(4), 91–101.

Saraih, U. N., Aris, A. Z. Z., Sakdan, M. F., & Ahmad, R. (2017). Factors affecting turnover intention among academician in the Malaysian higher educational institution. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 6(1), 1–15.

Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). Work engagement: What do we know and where do we go? Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 14(1), 3–10.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(0), 893–917.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for Business. (7th, Ed.). United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Sengupta, S., & Dev, S. (2013). What makes employees stay? Exploring the dimensions in context of urban-centric business process outsourcing industry in India. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 6(3), 258–276.

Shah, S. H. A., & Beh, L.-S. (2016). The impact of motivation enhancing practices and mediating role of talent engagement on turnover intentions: Evidence from Malaysia. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(4), 823–835.

Sheehan, C., Tham, T. L., Holland, P., & Cooper, B. (2019). Psychological contract fulfilment, engagement and nurse professional turnover intention. International Journal of Manpower, 40(2), 2–16.

Shuck, B., Peyton Roberts, T., & Zigarmi, D. (2018). Employee perceptions of the work environment, motivational outlooks, and employee work intentions: An HR practitioner’s dream or nightmare? Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(2), 197–213.

Shuck, B., Zigarmi, D., & Owen, J. (2015). Psychological needs, engagement, and work intentions: A Bayesian multi-measurement mediation approach and implications for HRD. European Journal of Training and Development, 39(1), 2–21.

Sidik, M. H., Hamid, M. R. A., & Ibrahim, A. (2017). Descriptive analysis of staff satisfaction and turnover intention in a Malaysian University. AIP Publishing, 1842(1), 1–13.

Tauhed, S. Z., Rasdi, R. M., Samah, B. A., & Ibrahim, R. (2018). The influence of organizational factors on work engagement among academics at Malaysian research universities. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(10), 973–988.

Taylor, P. W. (2012, November). Georgia attracts unlikely students to government jobs. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from govt-jobs.htm

Teo, T. S. H., Srivastava, S. C., & Jiang, L. (2008). Trust and electronic government success: An empirical study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 25(3), 99–132.

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259–293.

Tshukudu, T. T. (2020). Employee engagement and staff turnover and its implication on the organisational performance: Case of AON Botswana. International Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 8(1), 1–11.

Wan, C. Da. (2022, August 2). Overworked academics quitting their jobs. New Straits Times, pp. 1–4.

Wang, C. K. J., Liu, W. C., Kee, Y. H., & Chian, L. K. (2019). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness in the classroom: understanding students’ motivational processes using the self-determination theory. Heliyon, 5(7), 1–6.

Whipp, P. R., & Salin, K. (2018). Physical education teachers in Australia: Why do they stay? Social Psychology of Education, 21(4), 897–914.

Woon, W., Tan, C. L., & Nasurdin, A. M. (2017). Linking organizational climate, psychological ownership, and intention to stay: A proposed model. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 9(1), 127–142.

Yimer, I., Nega, R., & Ganfure, G. (2017). Academic staff turnover intention in Madda Walabu University, Bale Zone, south-east Ethiopia. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(3), 21–28.

Yunus, A. S., & Pang, V. (2015). Academic promotion in Malaysia: Meeting academics’ expectation and institutional needs. RIHE International Seminar Reports, 23(0), 61–81.




How to Cite