Utilising Causal Loop Diagram to Explore Public Integrity for Effective COVID-19 Preventive Measures in Malaysia


  • Jack Kie Cheng Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
  • Puteri Fadzline Muhamad Tamyez Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
  • Fazeeda Mohamad Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
  • Zetty Ain Kamaruzzaman Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
  • Faridah Zulkipli Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
  • Maizura Mohd Zainudin Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia




System Thinkings, Causal Loop Diagram, Preventive Measures, COVID-19, Public Integrity


COVID-19 creates an unprecedented crisis in our lifetimes.  The escalating rates of COVID-19 infection brings calamity to many parts of the world.  Malaysia has been in a fierce battle with COVID-19 since March 2020 but the endgame is still obscure.  Since the beginning of the pandemic, many preventive measures are implemented by the Malaysian government.  Some of the strategies such as lockdown and movement restrictions are effective in flattening the curve of COVID-19.  However, over a period of time, negative unintended consequences such as pandemic fatigue emerged due to prolong confinement.  Lockdown is also an expensive measure that impacts the community livelihood and subsequently risking Malaysia’s economy.  After two years of the pandemic, with the success of COVID-19 vaccination programme, Malaysia may be ready to return to normalcy.  However, the world is alarmed with new deadly COVID-19 variant which puts Malaysia in constant risk of resurge of cases.  This paper aims to understand how implemented preventive measures interacted with each other and collectively influence the spread of COVID-19 in Malaysia.  Only by understanding these interaction, more effective, economical and sustainable counter measures that safe lives without compromising people livelihood can be introduced.  The causal loop diagram, an essence of system dynamics is developed to capture these interconnections and provide meaningful insights.  The role of community and public integrity are also observed in this study. 

Author Biographies

Jack Kie Cheng , Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

Jack Kie Cheng received her PhD and Bachelor Degree in Decision Sciences from Universiti Utara Malaysia.  She is currently an Associate Professor at Universiti Malaysia Pahang.  Prior joining University Malaysia Pahang, she was a Research Associate in Kantar TNS Malaysia, where she worked on employee engagement and customer satisfaction market study for numerous industries.  Now with Faculty of Industrial Management, she taught courses such as Computer Modelling and Simulation, Operations Research, Managerial Decision Modelling, Project Management and Strategic Management.  Her area of research interest includes Systems Thinking, System Dynamics, Discrete Event Simulation and Operations Research, Logistics and Supply Chain Management.

Puteri Fadzline Muhamad Tamyez, Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

Puteri Fadzline Muhamad Tamyez is currently an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang. She graduated from Universiti Technology MARA, Shah Alam, with a PhD in Business Management and from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang with BSc and MSc degrees in Bioresources, Paper and Coating Technology under the School of Industrial Technology. Prior to Universiti Malaysia Pahang, she had accumulated industrial experiences in the furniture and wood flooring industry for 4 years. At both companies, she is responsible for matters related to Quality Control and Production processes. Her research interests are Innovation Management and Product Management.

Fazeeda Mohamad, Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

Fazeeda Mohamad is currently a fulltime senior lecturer at the Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang.  She holds a PhD in Technology Management from Universiti Malaysia Pahang, a Master Degree in Technical and Vocational Education from Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia and a Bachelor Degree in International Business from Universiti Teknologi MARA. Academically, she has taught courses under business management and logistics and supply chain management. In research, she has interest in Business Performance, Data Envelopment Analysis, Discrete Event Simulation and System Dynamics.

Zetty Ain Kamaruzzaman, Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

Zetty Ain Kamaruzzaman is currently a Head of Programme (Bachelor of Business Analytics with Honours) and Senior Lecturer at Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy (Statistics) from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Master of Science (Statistics) from Universiti Sains Malaysia and Bachelor of Science with Hons. (Statistics) from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. She has been teaching for more than three years and has five years of experience in construction industry. Her research interests include Statistics, Quantitative Finance and Business Analytics.

Faridah Zulkipli, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia

Faridah Zulkipli is currently a Senior Lecturer at Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA Perak Branch, Tapah Campus. She holds a Master of Science (Decision Science) and Bachelor of Science with Hons. (Decision Science) from Universiti Utara Malaysia. She has been teaching for more than thirteen years. Her research interests include Operations Research, Statistics and Quantitative Analysis.

Maizura Mohd Zainudin, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

Maizura Mohd Zainudin is currently a Senior Lecturer at Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy (Medical Physiology) from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor’s degree from International Islamic University Malaysia. Dr. Maizura started housemanship training at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Klang in 2006. In 2008, she served Klinik Kesihatan Maran as a medical officer. Her research interests are cardiovascular diseases and women’s health.


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How to Cite

Cheng , J. K. ., Muhamad Tamyez, P. F. ., Mohamad, F. ., Kamaruzzaman, Z. A., Zulkipli, F., & Mohd Zainudin, M. (2023). Utilising Causal Loop Diagram to Explore Public Integrity for Effective COVID-19 Preventive Measures in Malaysia. Journal of Governance and Integrity, 5(3), 360–369. https://doi.org/10.15282/jgi.5.3.2022.8535



JGI Vol. 5 Issue 3, December 2022

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