Ethical Considerations in Enhancing Quality Performance: A Comprehensive Review of the Role of Employee Empowerment & Involvement, Communication, Knowledge Management and Organisational Culture


  • Kim Ki Tommy Leung Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia
  • Chen Ling Tan Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia
  • Nabsiah Abdul Wahid Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia



Quality Performance, Knowledge Management, Organisational Culture, Employee Empowerment, Employee Involvement, Communication


The aim of this study is to provide a conceptual model that links several key variables including employee empowerment & involvement and communication of organisational factors (OF), knowledge management (KM) and organisational culture (OC) to enhance quality performance (QP) of Hong Kong watchmaking industry. Literature review was conducted extensively, and the approach employed was conceptualized into a proposed conceptual framework. A conceptual framework was suggested in this paper to enhance QP of Hong Kong watchmaking industry through employee empowerment & involvement and communication of OF, a mediator KM and a moderator OC. The literature review was performed extensively to provide four hypotheses including 1) the OF-KM relationship, 2) the KM-QP relationship, 3) the OF-QP relationship through a mediator KM, and 4) the KM-QP relationship through a moderator OC. More opportunities were provided in this study for researchers to expand further the research in QP of Hong Kong watchmaking industry on the basis of the theories from knowledge-based view and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in the organisations. The study attempted to explore good employee empowerment & involvement and communication together with strategic KM and OC to enhance QP of Hong Kong watchmaking industry. According to this study, the mediator KM and the moderator OC for the OF-QP relationship can be expected to enhance QP of Hong Kong watchmaking industry. KM mediates the OF-QP relationship whereas OC moderates the OF-QP relationship with existence of the mediator KM. In this connection, the study is significant with both theoretical perspective and practical perspective. A research gap is existed to find out a moderating role of OC in the OF-QP relationship if KM mediates the OF-QP relationship.


Abdullateef, A.O. and Salleh, S.Md. (2013). Does customer relationship management influence call centre quality performance? An empirical industry analysis, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 24(9-10), 1035-1045.

Adem, M.K. and Virdi, S.S. (2020). The effect of TQM practices on operational performance: an empirical analysis of ISO 9001: 2008 certified manufacturing organizations in Ethiopia. TQM Journal., 33(2).

Adeshola, I., Oluwajana, D., Awosusi, A.A. and Sogeke, O.S. (2022). Do cultural dimensions influence management style and organizational culture in a multicultural environment? Case study of Northern Cyprus. Kybernetes.

Alkhaldi, R.Z. and Abdallah, A.B. (2021). The influence of soft and hard TQM on quality performance and patient satisfaction in health care: investigating direct and indirect effects, Journal of Health Organisation and Management., 36(3).

Arghode, V., Lathan, A., Alagaraja, M., Rajaram, K. and McLean, G.N. (2021). Empathic organizational culture and leadership: conceptualizing the framework. European Journal of Training and Development, 46(1/2).

Ballangrud, R., Husebø, S.E. and Hall-Lord, M.L. (2019). Cross-cultural validation and psychometric testing of the Norwegian version of TeamSTEPPS teamwork attitude questionnaire. Journal of Interprofessional Care.

Bassellier, G., Reich, B.H. and Benbasat, I. (2001). Information technology competence of business managers: A definition and research model. Journal of Management Information Systems, 17(4), 159–182.

Bjørnstad, A. L. and Ulleberg, P. (2017). Is Established Knowledge About Cross-Cultural Differences in Individualism–Collectivism Not Applicable to the Military? A Multi Method Study of Cross-Cultural Differences in Behavior, Military Psychology, 29(6), 477-490.

Bollinger, A.S. and Smith, R.D. (2001). Managing organizational knowledge as a strategic asset. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(1), 8-18.

Bond, M.H., Smith, P.K., Fischer, R. and Vignoles, V.L. (2013). Understanding Social Psychology Across Cultures: Engaging with Others in a Changing World. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Bouranta, N., Evangelos L. Psomas, Pantouvakis A. (2017), Identifying the critical determinants of TQM and their impact on company performance Evidence from the hotel industry of Greece, The TQM Journal, 29(1), 147–166.

Brønn, P.S. (2014). How others see us: leaders’ perceptions of communication and communication managers. Journal of Communication Management, 18(1), 58-79.

Cabrera, E.F. and Cabrera, A. (2005). Fostering knowledge sharing through people management practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(5), 720-35.

Chang, S.E. and Ho, C.B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 106(3), 345-361.

Chaudhry, A., Yuan, L., Hu, J. and Cooke, R.A. (2016). What matters more? The impact of industry and organizational factors on organizational culture. Management Decision, 54(3), 570-588.

Chen, C-J. and Huang, J-W. (2009). Strategic human resource practices and innovation performance – the mediating role of knowledge management capacity. Journal of Business Research, 62, 104-14.

Chen, J., Wang, L. and Qu, G. (2021). Explicating the business model from a knowledge-based view: nature, structure, imitability and competitive advantage erosion. Journal of Knowledge Management, 25(1), 23-47.

Chong, A.Y.L., Chan, F.T.S., Goh, M. and Tiwari, M.K. (2013). Do interorganisational relationships and knowledge-management practices enhance collaborative commerce adoption? International Journal of Production Research, 51(7), 2006-2018.

Cohen, W.M. and Levinthal, D.A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128–152.

Cramton, C.D. (2001). The mutual knowledge problem and its consequences for dispersed collaboration. Organization Science, 12(3), 346–371.

Currie, G. and Kerrin, M. (2003). Human resource management and knowledge management enhancing knowledge sharing in a pharmaceutical company. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 1027-45.

Demsetz, H. (1991). The theory of the firm revisited. In O.E. Williamson and S.G. Winter (Eds.), The nature of the firm, New York, 159–178. NY: Oxford University Press.

DeTienne, K.B., Dyer, G., Hoopes, C. and Harris, S. (2004). Toward a model of effective knowledge management and directions for future research: culture, leadership, and CKOs. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10, 26-43.

DeWine, S. (2000). The Consultant’s Craft: Improving Organizational Communication, 2nd ed., St Martins, Bedford.

Dimitriades, Z.S. (2000). Team Performance Management; Bradford, 6(7/8), 117-121.

Donzé, P-Y. (2018). National labels and the competitiveness of European industries: the example of the ‘Swiss Made’ law since 1950. European Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire.

Elkanayati, R.M. and Shamah, R. (2019). Could the balanced scorecard enhance pharmaceutical organisations’ quality performance? Industrial and Commercial Training, 51(4).

Ferdousi, F., Baird, K., Munir, R. and Su, S. (2019). Mediating role of quality performance on the association between organisational factors and competitive advantage. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(3), 542-560.

Garvin, D.A. (1991). Managing Quality: The Strategic and Competitive Edge, Free Press, New York, NY.

Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.

Gibbs, J.L., Nekrassova, D., Grushina, S.V. and Wahub, S.A. (2008). Reconceptualizing virtual teaming from a constitutive perspective. Communication Yearbook, 32(1), 87-229.

Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (1996). What holds the modern company together? Harvard Business Review.

Goldstein, S. M., and Iossifova, A. R. (2012). Ten years after: Interference of hospital slack in process performance benefits of quality practices. Journal of Operations Management, 30, 44–54.

Grant, R.M. (1996). Prospering in dynamically competitive environments: Organizational capability as knowledge integration. Organization Science, 7, 4 (July–August 1996), 375–387.

Grant, R.M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, Special issue (Winter 1996), 109–122.

Ham, J., Koo, Y., and Lee, J.N. (2022). Government data openness and knowledge management: configurational patterns for national competitiveness. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 122(12).

Hamilton, S. and Chervany, N.L. (1981). Evaluating information systems effectiveness – Part 1: comparing evaluation approach. MIS Quarterly, 15(3), 55-69.

HKPC (2019). Watch Out, Hong Kong! A Study on the Sustainable Development of the Watch and Clock Industry of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Productivity Council.

Hofstede, G. (1980a). Cultural Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Value. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.

Hofstede, G. (1980b). Motivation, leadership and organization: do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42-63.

Hofstede, G. (1983). Culture and management development. HK: Management Development Branch. Training Department.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Culture and Organization: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill, London.

Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94.

Hofstede, G. (1994). Management scientists are human. Management Science, 40(1), 4-13.

Hofstede, G. (1994). Uncommon sense about organizations: cases, studies, and field observations. HK: Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G. (1998). Attitudes, values and organizational culture: Disentangling the concepts, Organization Studies 19(3), 477–492.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Hofstede, G. and Hofstede, G.J. (2005). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J., and Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hue, M.T. (2007) The Influence of Classic Chinese Philosophy of Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism on Classroom Discipline in Hong Kong Junior Secondary Schools, Pastoral Care in Education, 25(2), 38-45.

Jajja, M.S.S., Asif, M., Montabon, F.L. and Chatha, K.A. (2019). The influence of institutional pressures and organization culture on Supplier Social Compliance Management Systems. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 49(5), 552-574.

Jayaram, J., Oke, A. and Prajogo, D. (2013). The antecedents and consequences of product and process innovation strategy implementation in Australian manufacturing firms. International Journal of Production Research, 23, 1-16.

Juran, J.M. and Godfrey, A.B. (1998). Juran’s Quality Handbook, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Kaynak, H. (2003). The relationship between total quality management practices and their effects on firm performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21(4), 405-435.

Kluckhohn, C. (1954). Culture and Behavior. Free Press, New York, NY.

Kluckhohn, C. (1962). Culture and Behavior. Free Press of Glencoe, New York, NY.

Kogut, B. and Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3(3), 383–397.

Koo, Y., Kim, S.J. and Song, J.H. (2022). The moderating effect of communication on congruence and incongruence of openness to change: is communication always beneficial for learning organization culture and knowledge sharing? The Learning Organization., 29(2).

Kristal, M.M., Huang, X. and Roth, A.V. (2010). The effect of an ambidextrous supply chain strategy on combinative competitive capabilities and business performance. Journal of Operations Management, 28(5), 415-429.

Kubicek, A., Bhanugopan, R. and O’Neill, G. (2017). How does cultural intelligence affect organisational culture: the mediating role of cross-cultural role conflict, ambiguity, and overload, The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 30(7), 1059-1083.

Kumar, V, Sharma, R.R.K., Verma, P., Lai, K.K. and Chang, Y.H. (2018). Mapping the TQM implementation: An empirical investigation of the cultural dimensions with different strategic orientation in Indian firms. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 25(8).

Lahiry, S. (1994). Building commitment through organizational culture. Training & Development, 48, 50-52.

Lawler, E.E. (1995). Employee involvement and total quality management: practices and results in Fortune 1000 companies. US: Jossey-Bass.

Lee, C.C. and Yang, J. (2000). Knowledge value chain. Journal of Management Development, 19(9), 783–793.

Lee, S.-M., Rho, B.-H. and Lee, S.-G. (2003). Impact of Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria on organizational quality performance, International Journal of Production Research, 41(9), 2003-2020.

Lee, Y. (2021). Dynamics of millennial employees’ communicative behaviors in the workplace: the role of inclusive leadership and symmetrical organizational communication. Personnel Review., 51(6).

Liew, C. (2008). Strategic integration of knowledge management and customer relationship management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(4), 131-146.

Liu, Y. and Xu, J. (2006). QFD Model for Quality Performance Self‐assessment. Asian Journal on Quality, 7(1), 112-127.

Manik, H.F.G.G., Christanti, R. and Setiawan, W. (2022). Knowledge management and community-based enterprise: an initiative to preserve the shadow puppet traditional knowledge in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems.

Mehta, N. (2008). Successful knowledge management implementation in global software companies. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(3), 42-56.

Mellat-Parast, M. (2013). Quality citizenship, employee involvement, and operational performance: an empirical investigation, International Journal of Production Research, 51(10), 2805-2820.

Murphy, W.H., Gölgeci, I. and Johnston, D.A. (2020). Power-based behaviors between supply chain partners of diverse national and organizational cultures: the crucial role of boundary spanners’ cultural intelligence. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 35(2), 204-218.

Nasim, K. (2018). Role of internal and external organizational factors in TQM implementation: A systematic literature review and theoretical framework. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 35(5), 1014-1033.

Neal, C., Quester, P. and Hawkins, D. (2006). Consumer Behaviour: Implications for Marketing Strategy, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin, Sydney.

Nelson, K.M. and Cooprider, J.G. (1996). The contribution of shared knowledge to IT group performance. MIS Quarterly, 20(4), 409–432.

Okhuysen, G.A. and Eisenhardt, K.M. (2002). Integrating knowledge in groups: How formal interventions enable flexibility. Organization Science, 13(4), 370–386.

Palacios, D., Gil, I. and Garrigos, F. (2009). The impact of knowledge management on innovation and entrepreneurship in the biotechnology and telecommunications industries. Small Business Economics, 32(3), 291-301.

Parthiban, P. and Goh, M. (2011). An integrated model for performance management of manufacturing units. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 18(2), 261-281.

Parvadavardini, S., Vivek, N. and Devadasan, S.R. (2016) Impact of quality management practices on quality performance and financial performance: evidence from Indian manufacturing companies, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 27(5-6), 507-530.

Pearce, W.B. (2007). Making Social Worlds. A Communication Perspective, Blackwell Pub, Malden, MA.

Psomas, E., Vouzad, F., and Kafetzopoulos, D. (2014). Quality management benefits through the “soft” and “hard” aspect of TQM in food companies. The TQM Journal, 26(5), 431–444.

Rahman, S., Islam, Md.Z., Abdullah, A.D.A. and Sumardi, W.A. (2018). Empirical investigation of the relationship between organizational factors and organizational commitment in service organizations. Journal of Strategy and Management, 11(3), 418-431.

Reich, B.H. and Benbasat, I. (1996). Measuring the linkage between business and information technology objectives. MIS Quarterly, 20(1), 55–81.

Reich, B.H. and Benbasat, I. (2000). Factors that influence the social dimension of alignment between business and IT objectives. MIS Quarterly, 24(1), 81–113.

Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press.

Roth, J. (2003). Enabling knowledge creation: learning from the R&D organization. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), 32-48.

Rousseau, D.M. (1988). The construction of climate in organizational research, in Cooper, C.L. and Roberston, I.T. (Eds). International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, Wiley, New York, NY, 139-158.

Roy, V. (2019). Decoding the elemental arcs of superior performance in sustainable supply chains: A knowledge-based view. Management Decision, 57(9), 2570-2592.

Sahibzada, U.F., Latif, K.F., Xu, Y. and Khalid, R. (2020). Catalyzing knowledge management processes towards knowledge worker satisfaction: fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. Journal of Knowledge Management, 24(10) 2373-2400.

Schein, E. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd ed. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA.

Schwartz, S.H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: new cultural dimensions of values, in Kim, U., Triandis, H.C., Kagitcibasi, C., Choi, S-C. and Yoon, G. (Eds), Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Methods and Applications. Sage Publications, London, 85-119.

Seno, R., Hashim, H.A., Taha, R. and Abdul Hamid, S. (2022). The influence of Hofstede’s cultural dimension on tax compliance behaviour of tax practitioners. Asian Review of Accounting, 30(1), 77-96.

Sharif, A.M., Alshawi, S., Kamal, M.M., Eldabi, T. and Mazhar, A. (2014). Exploring the role of supplier relationship management for sustainable operations: an OR perspective, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 65(6), 963-978.

Sousa, R. and Voss, C.A. (2002). Quality management re-visited: a reflective review and agenda for future research. Journal of Operations Management, 20(1), 91-109.

Spender, J.C. (1996). Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, Special issue (Winter 1996), 45–63.

Sun, J., Kim, S. and Zhao, F. (2022). Mathematical modeling of optimal allocation of remote workforce: an interdisciplinary investigation with Hofstede's cultural factors and managerial ability. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management. Vol. 30, No. 2, 219-247(29)

Tench, R., Vercic, D., Zerfass, A., Moreno, Á. and Verhoeven, P. (2017). Communication Excellence: How to Develop, Manage and Lead Exceptional Communications. Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Tetteh, S., Dei Mensah, R., Opata, C.N. and Agyapong, G.N.Y.A. (2021). Beyond monetary motivation: the moderation of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 72 No. 1, 156-179.

The Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry (2022). The Swiss and World Watchmaking Industries in 2021. The Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry.

Triandis, H.C. (1994). Theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of collectivism and individualism, in Kim, U. and Hakhoe, H.S. (Eds). Individualism and Collectivism, Sage Publications, London.

Wickramasinghe, V. and Perera, S. (2014). Effects of perceived organisation support, employee engagement and organisation citizenship behaviour on quality performance. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25(11-12), 1280-1294.

Wilkinson, A. and Willmott, H. (1996). Quality management, problems and pitfalls: a critical perspective. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 13(2), 55-65.

Wu, S.J. (2015). The impact of quality culture on quality management practices and performance in Chinese manufacturing firms. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 32(8), 799-814.

Yang, J-T. (2007). Knowledge sharing: investigating appropriate leadership roles and collaborative culture. Tourism Management, 28, 530-43.

Yee, Y.M., Tan, C.L. and Thurasamy R. (2019). Back to basics: building a knowledge management system. Strategic Direction., 35(2).

Yim, F., Anderson, R., and Swaminathan, S. (2004). Customer Relationship Management: Its Dimensions and Effect on Customer Outcomes. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 24(4), 263-278.

Yu, T. and Wu, N. (2009). A review of study on the competing values framework. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(7), 37-42.

Zack, M. (1999a). Developing a knowledge strategy. California Management Review, 41, 125-45.

Zack, M., McKeen, J. and Singh, S. (2009). Knowledge management and organizational performance: an exploratory analysis. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(6), 392-409.

Zeqiri, J., and Alija, S. (2016). The Organizational Culture Dimensions – The Case of an Independent Private University in Macedonia. Studia Universitatis Babe-Bolyai Oeconomica, 61(3), 20–31.

Zerfass, A. and Volk, S.C. (2018). How communication departments contribute to corporate success: The communications contributions framework, Journal of Communication Management, 22(4), 397-415.

Zu, X., Fredendall, L.D. and Douglas, T.J. (2008). The evolving theory of quality management: the role of Six Sigma. Journal of Operations Management, 26(5), 630-650.




How to Cite

Leung, K. K. T., Tan, C. L., & Abdul Wahid, N. (2023). Ethical Considerations in Enhancing Quality Performance: A Comprehensive Review of the Role of Employee Empowerment & Involvement, Communication, Knowledge Management and Organisational Culture. Journal of Governance and Integrity, 6(2), 564–576.



JGI Vol. 6 Issue 2, September 2023