An Analysis of Translation Procedures of Cultural-specific Items from English into Arabic Applied in “Sunshine in the Rain: A Maid's Courage”


  • Al Sammarraie Huda Saad Mudheher Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Ilangko Subramaniam Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Enid Zureen Zainal Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia



Arabic translation, Cultural classifications, Culture-specific items (CSIs), Literary texts, Newmark’s Model, Translation Procedure


Cultures seem to be brimming with culture-specific items (CSIs). Such objects may be unique to one culture or communicated by several cultures. In literature, there is a wide range of CSIs, but editors may have difficulty translating them. This investigation emphasizes what editors might encounter in the translation procedures of CSIs found in a short story entitled “Sunshine in the Rain: A Maid's Courage”. The differences between the source English language and target Arabic language texts present difficulties in various transcription procedures. It is worth noting that the researcher was able to successfully translate many CSIs into foreign dialects through this book. Thus, the current paper addresses the gap issue that translators face when translating some culturally specific texts or statements from English into Arabic. The book was selected because it tells a cultural story in three languages: Malay, English (the public tongue), and Tagalog (the Filipino language). To better know these methods, the Arab writer community gains knowledge and utilizes Newmark's models to translate analyses based on theory, which hires seven procedures of CSIs to be translated processes inspected and discussed. The outcome proved that literal translation was a majority typically utilized technique (17.6%), followed by modulation (16.3%) and paraphrasing (12.6%), with other procedures such as naturalization, couplets, notes, additions, and glosses being avoided. Certain research conclusions, as well as information provided by translators, translation researchers, and students, may assist a translator knowledgeable in paying more attention to CSIs. By means of translating a variety of things, you can guide them to improve one's elaboration skills and expand their cultural languages.



How to Cite

Saad Mudheher, A. S. H. ., Subramaniam, I., & Zainal, E. Z. (2023). An Analysis of Translation Procedures of Cultural-specific Items from English into Arabic Applied in “Sunshine in the Rain: A Maid’s Courage”. International Journal of Language Education and Applied Linguistics, 13(2), 19–27.



Research Articles