GUIDE FOR AUTHORS
The authors are invited to submit their manuscripts using the journal online manuscript submission system (https://journal.ump.edu.my/ijleal).
The IJLEAL publishes the following types of manuscripts:
Full Research Articles
Full research articles provide significant new findings and conclusions obtained from scientific investigations and processes that fall within the scope of the journal. These articles should not be more than 8000 words in length (excluding the abstract, tables, figures, and references).
The review articles describe the current state of knowledge and provide suggestions for potential future research direction in the field. The length of a published review article is not more than 8,000 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references).
The editorials are opinion essays, which discuss current issues relevant to the scope of IJLEAL or highlight the expert areas of the Editorial Board members. Editorial Board members are invited to submit their essays for each issue, and the essays are reviewed only by the Editorial team. The essays are not more than 3,000 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, and references).
During initial submission of the manuscript, authors should ensure that these documents are submitted: 1) Manuscript in the Style Sheet template, and 2) Title Page. Incomplete submission will delay the processing of the manuscript.
These instructions are written in a form that satisfies all the formatting requirements for the author's manuscript. Please use them as a template in preparing your manuscript.
The manuscript should be formatted using the Style Sheet template. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating the reviewing, and editing of the manuscript. Standard fonts are recommended, and the 'symbols’ font should be used for representing Greek characters. The manuscript should be written in English or Malay in a clear, direct, and active style. There should be no information of the authors in the Style Sheet template.
Manuscripts should include:
- Highlights (Optional)
- Graphical Abstract (Optional)
- Method and Materials
- Results and Discussion
- Conflict of Interest
- Acknowledgements/Funding Information
- Figures/illustrations and tables included in the text
- Supportive/Supplementary Material
The title is concise and informative. In information retrieval systems, titles are often used as search terms. If possible, avoid using abbreviations and formulas in the title.
It is important to write a concise and informative abstract (maximum 250 words). The aim of the study, the brief methodology, the main findings, and the major conclusions should all be included in the abstract. For an abstract to be effective, it must be stand-alone and self-explanatory. References, tables, and figures should not be cited in the abstract. Additionally, non-standard or unusual abbreviations should be avoided; nevertheless, if they are necessary, they must be explained at the time of their first mention in the abstract text.
The keywords should be included right after the abstract, at least three keywords must be provided. Use abbreviations carefully; only abbreviations that are well-established in the field could be acceptable. These keywords will be used for the purposes of indexing.
This should provide an adequate background and general context for the work, explaining its significance, and indicating why it should be of interest to researchers. Avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. State the objectives of the study at the end of this section.
This section should consist of an overview, a summary, and an evaluation or synthesis of the current state of knowledge about a specific area of research. It may also include a discussion of methodological issues and suggestions for future research.
It is recommended that the authors provide adequate information to enable the work to be replicated. Methods that have previously been published should be referenced, and only relevant modifications should be mentioned.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It is appropriate to combine the Results and Discussion sections into a single section. However, authors are allowed to present the Results and Discussion separately. Clear and concise results are required. The significance of the work's findings should be discussed in detail throughout the discussion section. Extensive citations and discussion of already published material should be avoided.
A brief paragraph summarising all the significant accomplishments of the study. There should also be the future directions and limitations of the study.
Section headings should be numbered sequentially left aligned and have the first letter capitalised, starting with the introduction. Sub-section headings, however, should be in lower-case and italicised with their initials capitalised. They should be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, etc.
The author (s) should define all abbreviations used when the first time appeared in the text. A list of abbreviations may also be included at the end.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
It should disclose any financial or non-financial interests such as political, personal, or professional relationships that may be interpreted as having influenced the manuscript. The phrase "The authors declare no conflicts of interest" should be included if there is no conflict of interest.
This section should describe sources of funding that have supported the work. Please also describe the role of the study sponsor(s) (if any) in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data writing of the paper and decision to submit it for publication. Recognition of personal assistance should be given as a separate paragraph: people who contributed to the work, but do not fit the criteria for authors should be listed along with their contributions. You must ensure that anyone named in the acknowledgments agrees to being so named.
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
This work was supported by the name of funding sources including the type of grant and reference number [grant numbers …]. Detailed descriptions of the programme or grants and awards are not required. The following statement should be included if there is no funding available for the research:
This study was not supported by any grants from funding bodies in the public, private, or not-for-profit sectors.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be labelled with the letters A, B, etc. There should be a different numbering system for formulae and equations in the appendices. For example, the equations for Appendix A are expressed as Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), and so on; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Figures should be self-explanatory and contain a short but adequately detailed caption. Figures should be provided in one of the following formats: PNG, EPS, TIFF, JPEG, BMP. The figure(s) should have a resolution of 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for colour. All figures must be numbered sequentially in the text in the same order in which they appear (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2). Figure 1(a) and Figure 1(b) are examples of multi-part figures in which each component should be labelled. The figure(s) caption should be written in sentence cases and placed underneath the image, centre aligned, with no period at the end of the caption.
Tables should be self-explanatory and include a concise yet sufficiently descriptive caption. Tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and referred to in the text by number. Table legends should follow the main text, each on a separate page. Tables must be submitted as editable text and not as images. Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations but should not include detailed descriptions of the experiment.
Please provide complete information in the Title Page document.
Author Names and Affiliations
Before submitting the manuscript, please clearly indicate each author's given name(s) and family name(s) and double-check that all names are correctly spelt. Include the affiliation addresses of the authors underneath the list of names. All affiliations should be indicated with a lower-case or roman number as a superscript letter directly after the author's name and in front of the corresponding address. Please provide the complete postal address of each affiliation (with the country name) and the email address of each author.
The corresponding authors should be designated, and their complete address, business telephone and fax numbers, and email address must be clearly stated to receive correspondence at all stages of the reviewing and publishing processes and after the paper has been published. The corresponding author must provide an email address and keep the contact details up to date. Email address must be provided with an asterisk “*” in front of the corresponding author's name.
The authors must suggest at least two potential reviewers. Names, email addresses, complete contact details, and expert areas of the potential reviewers must be provided. The reviewers should meet these requirements:
- They must NOT be from the same institutions as all authors of the manuscript.
- They must have the same expert areas of the study discussed in the manuscript.
Providing names of potential reviewers can expediate the reviewing process; however, the Editorial Team may decline the names suggested by the authors if the requirements are not met.
It should contain relevant and complementary data to those presented in the manuscript. Supplemental material always remains associated with its article and is not subjected to any modifications after publication. These files may be submitted in various formats but should be publication-ready, as these files are published exactly as supplied. Material that has been published previously is not acceptable for posting as supplemental material. Their format can be tables, graphs, spectra, films and so on. All supporting information should be referred to in the manuscript, with titles (and, if desired, legends) for all files listed under the heading ‘Supporting Information’.
For any illustrations, tables, or figures already published elsewhere, authors are responsible for getting permission from the copyright holders. The publisher of the journal or book in which the Figure or Table first appeared is most often the copyright owner. In this case, a letter from the author(s)/publisher should be included to confirm that permission to reproduce the image has been given.
All papers are subjected to a preliminary evaluation by an Editor, who may reject an article before it has been submitted for peer review if it falls outside the journal's scope or is of inadequate quality. Following this first screening, manuscripts that seem to be appropriate are submitted to single-blind peer-review by a minimum of two independent reviewers or experts. The authors are requested to nominate at least two individuals who are qualified to evaluate their manuscripts by completing the Title Page form. Only manuscripts for the Editorials Section undergo a reviewing process by the Editorial Board.
The manuscript should be written in the English language or Bahasa Melayu clearly and understandably. The manuscript should be proofread for proper spelling and grammar use. We shall promptly return any manuscripts that are not complete or are not in good condition.
A well-established component of the editorial process is plagiarism screening. Turnitin software will be used to verify all submitted manuscripts for plagiarism check, of which the maximum similarity index allowed is set at 25%. .
The galley proofs are solely supplied to correct printing mistakes. It is not recommended to utilise the galley proof correction for language or content enhancement purposes. Make sure to proofread and correct any errors as soon as possible. Corrected galley proofs need to be returned within 72 hours or three business days after they are received.
Authors will be requested to sign a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' once their article has been accepted for publication. An email will be forwarded to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript and a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
COST OF PUBLICATION
The publication of an article in this journal is completely free of charge.
Articles are published in this journal with no charge to the author.
It is hoped that this list will be helpful during the final checking of an article before sending it to the Editor. Ensure that the following items are present:
- One author designated as the corresponding author
- Email address
- Full postal address
- Telephone and fax numbers
- All necessary files have been uploaded
- All figure captions
- All tables
- Title Page
- Names of potential reviewers
- The manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked."
- References are in the correct format for this journal
- All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
- Permission has been obtained for the use of copyrighted material from other sources