• Mohammed Al-Madani Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
  • Associate Prof Dr. Yudi Fernando Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
  • Pua Wee Sin Tenaga Nasional Berhad, 25000 Pahang, Malaysia



Blockchain, Energy Reporting , Energy Management , Energy Supply Chain , Integrity


This study aims to investigate literature findings on the current blockchain technology requirement. The obtained findings on blockchain technology requirements and limitations, helps to draw conclusions on the adoption of blockchain technology in energy consumption reporting. Blockchain technology offers transparency of energy consumption reports. Blockchain keeps all the transactional records and guarantees security, and decentralization between the blockchain network. Blockchain technology integration for energy consumption can promote transparency and integrity of energy management reporting. Among the reasons for companies’ reluctance to report energy consumption is non-transparency, the unnecessary cost for the report, and lack of regulation to release an energy consumption report or it is voluntary in best cases. This paper reviewed 121 papers related to the topic and conclusions drawn based on findings of previous literature. Blockchain can help to alleviate the issues of transparency and cost related to energy reporting. Decision and policymakers should offer incentives and include regulations on energy reporting requirements. The reporting should be requested through a blockchain network to guarantee transparency and integrity.


Ahl, A., Yarime, M., Tanaka, K., & Sagawa, D. (2019). Review of blockchain-based distributed energy: Implications for institutional development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 107(2), 200–211.

Alam Khan, F., Asif, M., Ahmad, A., Alharbi, M., & Aljuaid, H. (2020). Blockchain technology, improvement suggestions, security challenges on smart grid and its application in healthcare for sustainable development. Sustainable Cities and Society, 55 (4), 102018.

Andoni, M., Robu, V., Flynn, D., Abram, S., Geach, D., Jenkins, D., Mccallum, P., & Peacock, A. (2019). Blockchain technology in the energy sector : A systematic review of challenges and opportunities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 100(11), 143–174.

Azzi, R., Chamoun, R. K., & Sokhn, M. (2019). The power of a blockchain-based supply chain. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 135 (3),582–592.

Bauman, D. C. (2013). Leadership and the three faces of integrity. Leadership Quarterly, 24(3), 414–426.

Bürer, M. J., de Lapparent, M., Pallotta, V., Capezzali, M., & Carpita, M. (2019). Use cases for blockchain in the energy industry opportunities of emerging business models and related risks. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 137(8), 106002.

Castellanos, J. A. F., Coll-Mayor, D., & Notholt, J. A. (2017). Cryptocurrency as guarantees of origin: Simulating a green certificate market with the Ethereum blockchain. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), 367–372.

Chen, X. (2018). Blockchain challenges and opportunities : a survey Zibin Zheng and Shaoan Xie Hong-Ning Dai Huaimin Wang. 14(4), 352–375.

Chen, Y., & Bellavitis, C. (2020). Blockchain disruption and decentralised finance: The rise of decentralised business models. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 13(4), e00151.

Christidis, K., Sikeridis, D., Wang, Y., & Devetsikiotis, M. (2021). A framework for designing and evaluating realistic blockchain-based local energy markets. Applied Energy, 281(3), 115963.

De Vries, A. (2018). Bitcoin's growing energy problem. Joule, 2(5), 801–805.

Dinh, T. T. A., Wang, J., Chen, G., Liu, R., Ooi, B. C., & Tan, K. L. (2017). Blockbench: A framework for analysing private blockchains. Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, Part F1277, 1085–1100.

Fernando, Y., Bee, P. S., Jabbour, C. J. C., & Thomé, A. M. T. (2018). Understanding the effects of energy management practices on renewable energy supply chains: Implications for energy policy in emerging economies. Energy Policy, 118(2), 418–428.

Fernando, Y., Rozuar, N. H. M., & Mergeresa, F. (2021). The blockchain-enabled technology and carbon performance: Insights from early adopters. Technology in Society, 64(12), 101507.

Fernando, Y., & Saravannan, R. (2021). Blockchain technology: Energy efficiency and ethical compliance. Journal of Governance and Integrity, 4(2), 88–95.

Fernando, Y., Shaharudin, M. S., & Abideen, A. Z. (2022). Circular economy-based reverse logistics: dynamic interplay between sustainable resource commitment and financial performance. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).

Fernando, Y., Tseng, M., Aziz, N., Bramulya, R., & Wahyuni-td, I. S. (2022). Waste-to-energy supply chain management on circular economy capability : An empirical study. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 31(2), 26–38.

Gai, K., Wu, Y., Zhu, L., Qiu, M., & Shen, M. (2019). Privacy-preserving energy trading using consortium blockchain in smart grid. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 15(6), 3548–3558.

Hald, K. S., & Kinra, A. (2019). How the blockchain enables and constrains supply chain performance. 49(4), 376–397.

Hasankhani, A., Mehdi Hakimi, S., Bisheh-Niasar, M., Shafie-khah, M., & Asadolahi, H. (2021). Blockchain technology in the future smart grids: A comprehensive review and frameworks. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 129(5), 106811.

Hassija, V., Chamola, V., Garg, S., Krishna, D. N. G., Kaddoum, G., & Jayakody, D. N. K. (2020). A blockchain-based framework for lightweight data sharing and energy trading in V2G network. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 69(6), 5799–5812.

Hewa, T., Ylianttila, M., & Liyanage, M. (2021). Survey on blockchain based smart contracts: Applications, opportunities and challenges. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 177(3), 102857.

Hong, Y., Kwon, H., Lee, J., & Hur, J. (2018). A practical de-mixing algorithm for bitcoin mixing services. Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Blockchains, Cryptocurrencies, and Contracts, 15–20.

Imbault, F., Swiatek, M., De Beaufort, R., & Plana, R. (2017). The green blockchain: Managing decentralised energy production and consumption. Conference Proceedings - 2017 17th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2017 1st IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe, EEEIC / I and CPS Europe 2017.

Jansen, J., Drabik, E., & Egenhofer, C. (2016). The disclosure of guarantees of origin: Interactions with the 2030 climate and energy framework. CEPS Special Report, 149.

Khaqqi, K. N., Sikorski, J. J., Hadinoto, K., & Kraft, M. (2018). Incorporating seller/buyer reputation-based system in blockchain-enabled emission trading application. Applied Energy, 209(5), 8–19.

Khattak, S. I., Ahmad, M., Khan, Z. U., & Khan, A. (2020). Exploring the impact of innovation, renewable energy consumption, and income on CO2 emissions: new evidence from the BRICS economies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(12), 13866–13881.

Kim, J. E. (2019). Sustainable energy transition in developing countries: the role of energy aid donors. Climate Policy, 19(1), 1–16.

Kim, S. K., & Huh, J. H. (2018). A study on the improvement of smart grid security performance and blockchain smart grid perspective. Energies, 11(8).

Kouhizadeh, M., & Sarkis, J. (2018). Blockchain practices, potentials, and perspectives in greening supply chains. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(10).

Kumar, N. M., Chand, A. A., Malvoni, M., Prasad, K. A., Mamun, K. A., Islam, F. R., & Chopra, S. S. (2020). Distributed energy resources and the application of AI, IoT, and Blockchain in smart grids. Energies, 13(21), 5739.

Kvaternik, K., Laszka, A., Walker, M., Schmidt, D., Sturm, M., & Dubey, A. (2017). Privacy-preserving platform for transactive energy systems. ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1709.09597.

Laszka, A., Dubey, A., Walker, M., & Schmidt, D. (2017). Providing privacy, safety, and security in IoT-based transactive energy systems using distributed ledgers. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on the Internet of Things, 1–8.

Lee, J. Y. (2019). A decentralised token economy: How blockchain and cryptocurrency can revolutionise business. Business Horizons, 62(6), 773–784.

Li, Z., Bahramirad, S., Paaso, A., Yan, M., & Shahidehpour, M. (2019). Blockchain for decentralised transactive energy management system in networked microgrids. Electricity Journal, 32(4), 58–72.

Liu, H., Zhang, Y., & Yang, T. (2018). Blockchain-enabled security in electric vehicles cloud and edge computing. IEEE Network, 32(3), 78–83.

Mengelkamp, E., Notheisen, B., Beer, C., Dauer, D., & Weinhardt, C. (2018). A blockchain-based smart grid: towards sustainable local energy markets. Computer Science-Research and Development, 33(1), 207–214.

Miglani, A., Kumar, N., Chamola, V., & Zeadally, S. (2020a). Blockchain for internet of energy management: Review, solutions, and challenges. Computer Communications, 151(2), 395–418.

Miglani, A., Kumar, N., Chamola, V., & Zeadally, S. (2020b). Blockchain for Internet of Energy management: Review, solutions, and challenges. Computer Communications, 151(12), 395–418.

Musleh, A. S., Yao, G., & Muyeen, S. M. (2019). Blockchain Applications in Smart Grid-Review and Frameworks. IEEE Access, 7, 86746–86757.

Mylrea, M., & Gourisetti, S. N. G. (2017). Blockchain for smart grid resilience: Exchanging distributed energy at speed, scale and security. 2017 Resilience Week (RWS), 18–23.

Noor, S., Yang, W., Guo, M., van Dam, K. H., & Wang, X. (2018). Energy Demand Side Management within micro-grid networks enhanced by Blockchain. Applied Energy, 228(3), 1385–1398.

Perera, S., Nanayakkara, S., Rodrigo, M. N. N., Senaratne, S., & Weinand, R. (2020). Blockchain technology: Is it hype or real in the construction industry? Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 17(8), 100125.

Reynolds, J., Rezgui, Y., & Hippolyte, J.-L. (2017). Upscaling energy control from building to districts: Current limitations and future perspectives. Sustainable Cities and Society, 35(6), 816–829.

Sadawi, A. Al, Madani, B., Saboor, S., Ndiaye, M., & Abu-Lebdeh, G. (2021). A comprehensive hierarchical blockchain system for carbon emission trading utilising blockchain of things and smart contract. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 173(8), 121124.

Sankar, L. S., Sindhu, M., & Sethumadhavan, M. (2017). Survey of consensus protocols on blockchain applications. 2017 4th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems, ICACCS 2017.

Sarc, R., Curtis, A., Kandlbauer, L., Khodier, K., Lorber, K. E., & Pomberger, R. (2019). Digitalisation and intelligent robotics in value chain of circular economy oriented waste management – A review. Waste Management, 95(6), 476–492.

Study, A. C., Lu, Q., & Xu, X. (2017). Adaptable blockchain-based systems. 16(12), 21–27.

Sun, X., Chen, M., Zhu, Y., & Li, T. (2018). Research on the application of blockchain technology in energy internet. 2018 2nd IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2), 1–6.

Sunny, J., Undralla, N., & Madhusudanan Pillai, V. (2020). Supply chain transparency through blockchain-based traceability: An overview with demonstration. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 150(3), 106895.

Tasrip, N. E., Husin, N. M., & Alrazi, B. (2016). Energy reporting practices among top energy intensive industries in Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 32(1).

Tsao, Y.-C., & Thanh, V.-V. (2021). Toward blockchain-based renewable energy microgrid design considering default risk and demand uncertainty. Renewable Energy, 163(3), 870–881.

Yildizbasi, A. (2021). Blockchain and renewable energy: Integration challenges in circular economy era. Renewable Energy, 176(6), 183–197.

Yli-Huumo, J., Ko, D., Choi, S., Park, S., & Smolander, K. (2016). Where is current research on blockchain technology?—A systematic review. PLOS ONE, 11(10), e0163477.

Zhang, N., Zhong, S., & Tian, L. (2017). Using blockchain to protect personal privacy in the scenario of online taxi-hailing scene and its exposure to personal privacy and its process. International Journal of Computers Communications & Control, 12(12), 886–902.

Zyskind, G., & Nathan, O. (2015). Decentralising privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data. 2015 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops, 180–184.




How to Cite

Mohammed Al-Madani, Fernando, Y. ., & Sin , P. W. . (2022). IMPLICATIONS OF BLOCKCHAIN DEPLOYMENT IN ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: REPORT INTEGRITY . International Journal of Industrial Management, 13(1), 408–421.