Improvement of Green Procurement Performance in the Global Supply Chain: Evidence from Enterprise Resource Planning and Social Network Analysis

  • Muhammad Shabir Shaharudin, Dr. Universiti Malaysia Pahang
  • Syafiqa Suhaimi Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
  • Yudi Fernando, Assoc. Prof. Dr Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
  • Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain, Assoc. Prof. Dr Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang
  • Suparman Shabir Suparman Sekolah Tinggi Agama Masjid Syuhada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Keywords: Supply Chain Performance, Root cause analysis, Enterprise Resource Planning, Social network analysis


The purpose of this paper is to present a plan on how to improve the operational efficiency of the company during the Covid-19 period. Previous research has been reviewed in order to gain further knowledge of the problem; primarily on the operational performance, as well as on the supply chain management of the company. The results have shown that, on the basis of a social network analysis, the Procurement Engineer is the most influential individual in the management of information within the organization, where the Procurement Engineer is also the employee who has a strong link with the transfer of data to top management, the Ishikawa diagram indicates that the present environment is the primary cause of the company's problems in finding products, while the Tree diagram shows the only approach to the issue of insufficient employees is by supplying training for new or existing workers or by assigning staff from another department to serve permanently in a department where there is a lack of staff. In addition, the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) framework will strengthen the green supply chain management of the business as it will help to reduce the loss of time waiting for or processing the company's materials, thereby reducing the cost as well. This research offers proof of the pre-Covid 19 and post-Covid 19 impacts on green supply chain operational performance.

Author Biographies

Muhammad Shabir Shaharudin, Dr., Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Muhammad Shabir Shaharudin received his Ph.D. from Universiti Malaysia Pahang and MBA in International Business from Universiti Sains Malaysia, while his bachelor's degree in international business was from Limkokwing University Malaysia. His interest area includes environmental supply chain management, supply chain management, eco-innovation, international business, and social network analysis.  He is currently the Assistant Managing Editor for the Journal of Governance and Integrity (JGI), Malaysia. He is the Associate Editor for the International Journal of Productivity Management and Assessment Technologies (IJPMAT), USA. Email:

Syafiqa Suhaimi, Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Syafiqa binti Suhaimi currently is a third year Bachelor degree in Business Engineering (Hons) student in Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Pahang. Syafiqa’s previous educational qualification is Diploma in E-commerce from Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Kuantan, Pahang.

Yudi Fernando, Assoc. Prof. Dr, Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Yudi Fernando holds a Ph.D. and Associate Professor. He is the former Deputy Dean of Research and Postgraduate Studies at the Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang. He has experience working in the electronics industry for several years. His current research interests are sustainable supply chain management, halal logistics, blockchain technology, and service management. He is also a member of the Society of Logisticians, Malaysia/Pertubuhan Pakar Logistik Malaysia (LogM). Email:

Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain, Assoc. Prof. Dr, Faculty of Industrial Management, Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Wan Ahmad Fauzi was admitted as an advocate & solicitor at the High Court of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur on 23 September 1996. He is also qualified as a Syar'ie counsel for the State of Terengganu and the Federal Territories. In 2012, he was listed in "The Book of Malaysia Leaders: Political, Government & Corporate. He is currently the Director of The Institute of Civilization and Strategic Research, Malaysia. He once held a few prominent posts such as the Secretary of Terengganu Council of The Royal Court. At presence, he actively involves in NGOs. He obtained his PhD in constitutional law together with the certificates of Graduate on Time and Distinction PhD Thesis from the Law Faculty of The National University of Malaysia. Wan Ahmad Fauzi is the founder of Watan Jurisprudence. In recognizing his great contribution to our country, he was conferred a few Royal Awards such as PJN., DPNS., SMT. Email:

Suparman Shabir Suparman, Sekolah Tinggi Agama Masjid Syuhada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Suparman received his Ph.D from Yogyakarta State University Indonesia in education measurement. His bachelor degree is from Yogyakarta State University of Indonesia in Economic Education and a Postgraduate degree from Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta Indonesia in Psychometry. He works as a lecturer who specializes in educational statistics, evaluation and measurement of education, and Developmental Psychology. Currently he is the Chair of the Senate at the Islamic College of the Syuhada Mosque in Yogyakarta (STAIMS), Indonesia. He is also an educational consultant at two institutions, namely the Bakti Insani Islamic First Middle School and the Muna Falih Islamic Boarding School. Email:


Abdullah, J. M., Ismail, W. F. N. M. W., Mohamad, I., Ab Razak, A., Harun, A., Musa, K. I., & Lee, Y. Y. (2020). A Critical Appraisal of COVID-19 in Malaysia and Beyond. Mal J Med Sci, 27(2), 1.
Toda, A. A. (2020). Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) dynamics of COVID-19 and economic impact. Cornell University. Retrieved from
Badkar, M., & Greeley, B. (2020). New data shows vast scale of US economic breakdown.Financial Times April 15, 2020.
Fabeil, Noor & Pazim, Khairul & Langgat, Juliana. (2020). The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic Crisis on Micro- Enterprises: Entrepreneurs' Perspective on Business Continuity and Recovery Strategy. 3. 837-844. 10.31014/aior.1992.03.02.241.
Ghani, F. A. (2020). Impak psikologi akibat wabak Covid-19, Astro Awani, 14 Mac 2020, retrieved from
Karabag, S. F. (2020). An unprecedented global crisis! the global, regional, national, political, economic and commercial impact of the coronavirus pandemic, Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research,10(1), 1-6.
World Health Organisation (2020). Coronavirus disease (Covid-2019) situation reports, retrieved from
Fu, M., and H. Shen. 2020. COVID-19 and corporate performance in the energy industry -Energy Research Letters Moderating effect of goodwill impairment.1 (1):12967. doi:10.46557/001c.12967
Shen H.Y., Man Z., Wang M.S., Jun Z., Guo Z.L., (2020) Does Teacher-Turned Businessmen Curb Accrual-Based Earning Management and Real Activity Manipulation. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 0:0, 1-13.
Mohamed S., Abdul M.,(2020, May 4). The financial impact of Covid-19. Retrieved from
Flanders investment and trade.(2020, Nov 12). CORONA VIRUS-the situation in Malaysia. Retrieved from
Macfarlane, A.S.. (2020). The first 100 days after lockdown. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 120(4), iv-vi. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from
Nor.F.M., Ramli.N.A., Marzuki.A., & Rahim.N., (2020). “Corporate Sustainable Growth Rate: The potential Impact of Covid-19 on Malaysian Companies”, The Journal of Muamalat and Islamic Finance Research. 17(2020).25-38. ISSN:1823-0752
Kumar.A., Luthra.S., Mangla.S.K.,& Kazaconglu.Y., (2020). “Covid-19 Impact on Sustainable Production And Operation Management”, Sustainable Operations and Computers,(2020) 1-7
Voon.Z.Y.,(2020) “Struggle of Malaysian SME’s During The Covid-19 Pandemic”. Strategie Institute for Asia Pacific
Bhatia.M.,(2018, June 11). A Complete Guide to Quantitative Research Guideline.Human of Data. Retrieved from
Snyder.H.,(2019). “Literature Review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines”,Journal of Business Research. 104(2019) 333-339.
Igwenagu.C.,(2016, April). “Fundamenatals of research methodology and data collection” :ResearchGate.
Paulraj, A., Chen, I. J., & Blome, C. (2017). Motives and performance outcomes of sustainable supply chain management practices: A multi-theoretical perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(2),239-258.
Naway.F.A.& Rahmat.A.,(2019). “The mediating role of technology and logistic integration in the relationship between supply chain capability and supply chain operational performance”. Uncertain Supply Chain Management.7 (2019). 553–566.
Alzoubi.H.M.,& Yanamandra.R.,(2020). “Investigating the mediating role of information sharing strategy on agile supply chain”.Uncertain Supply Chain Management.8 (2020). 273–284
Fang, C., Zhang, J., 2018. Performance of green supply chain management: a systematic review and meta analysis. J. Clean. Prod. 183, 1064–1081.
Kumar.G.,Subramaniam.N.,&Arputham.R.M.,(2018). “Missing link between sustainability collaborative strategy and supply chain performance: Role of dynamic capability”.International Journal of Production Economics,203 (2018), 96–109
Brick, I.E., Fung, W.K.,(1984). The effect of taxes on the trade credit decision. Financ.Manag. 13, 24–30.
Dye, C.-Y., Yang, C.-T.,( 2015). Sustainable trade credit and replenishment decisions with credit-linked demand under carbon emission constraints. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 244,187–200.
Gong, Y., Jia, F., Brown, S., Koh, L.,(2018). Supply chain learning of sustainability in multitier supply chains: a resource orchestration perspective. Int. J. Oper. Prod. Manag. 38,1061–1090.
Caniato, F., Gelsomino, L.M., Perego, A., Ronchi, S.,( 2016). Does finance solve the supply chain financing problem? Supply Chain Manag.: Int. J. 21, 534–549.
Wang.Z.Q.,Wang.Q.,Lain.Y.,& Liang C.J.,(2020). “Drivers and outcomes of supply chain finance adoption: An empirical investigation in China". International Journal of Production Economics 220 (2020) 107453
Centobelli, P., Cerchione, R., Esposito, E.,(2017). Developing the WH2 framework for environmental sustainability in logistics service providers: a taxonomy of green initiatives. J. Clean. Prod. 165, 1063–1077.
Evangelista, P., Colicchia, C., Creazza, A.,(2017). Is environmental sustainability a strategic priority for logistics service providers? J. Environ. Manag. 198 (1), 356–362.
Javaid.T.,& Siddiqui.D.A.,(2018). “Supply Chain Responsiveness and Supply Chain Performance: The Role of Supply Chain Risk Management”. SSRN: 3285077.
Jiang, W., Sha, E. H.-M., Zhuge, Q., & Wu, L. (2017). Efficient assignment algorithms to,minimize operation cost for supply chain networks in agile manufacturing. Computers& Industrial Engineering, 108, 225–239.
Ramezankhani.M.J., Torabi.S.A., & Vahidi.F.,(2018). “Supply chain performance measurement and evaluation: A mixed sustainability and resilience approach". Computers & Industrial Engineering 126 (2018) 531–548
Upton, D.M. (1994).The management of manufacturing flexibility.California Management Review, 36(2), 72-89.
Muntaka.S.A., Haruna.A.,Mensah.K.H., (2017). “ Supply Chain Integration and Flexibility and Its Impact on Business Performance”.International Journal of Business and Management. 12(4). ISSN 1833-3850. E-ISSN 1833-8119
Adivar B, Hüseyinoğlu IÖY, Christopher M. A quantitative performance management framework for assessing omnichannel retail supply chains. J Retail Consum Serv 2019;48:257–69. doi:10.1016/J.JRETCONSER.2019.02.024.
Farsi.M., Bailly.A.,Bodin., Penella.V.,Pinault.L.P.,Ngia E.T.T.,Sibson.J., & Erkoyuncu.J.A., (2019). “An Optimisation Framework for Improving Supply Chain Performance: Case study of a bespoke service provider”.Procedia Manufacturing,49 (2020), 185–192.
Choi.T.M., & Guo.S.,(2017). “Responsive supply in fashion mass customisation systems with consumer returns”. International Journal of Production Research; 56(10). 3409-3422.
Kozienkova, I., Palmatier, R.W., Fang, E., Xiao, B. and Huang, M. (2017), “Online relationship formation”, Journal of Marketing, 81(3), 21-40.
Kregar, T. and Antoncic, B. (2016), “The relationship between the entrepreneur’s personal network multiplexity and firm growth”, The Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja,29 (1),1126-1135.
Scuotto, V., Del Giudice, M., Bresciani, S. and Meissner, D. (2017), “Knowledge-driven preferences in informal inbound open innovation modes. An explorative view on small to medium enterprises”, Journal of Knowledge Management, 21( 3),640-655.
Akintoye, A. (2015). Developing Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks.>uploads>2017/03/07 (accessed 2017 February 22)
Ravitch, S. M. & Carl, N. M. (2016). Qualitative Research: Bridging the Conceptual,Theoretical and Methodological. Los Angeles, U.S.A.: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Crossley, N., & Edwards, G. (2016). Cases, mechanisms and the real: The theory and methodology of mixed-method social network analysis. Sociological Research Online, 21(2),1–15.
Hollstein, B. (2014). Mixed methods social networks research: An introduction. In S.Domínguez & B. Hollstein (Eds.), Mixed methods social networks research: Design and applications (pp. 3–34). Cambridge University Press.
Moolenaar, N. M. (2012). A social network perspective on teacher collaboration in schools: Theory, methodology, and applications. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 7–39.
Sweet, T. M. (2016). Social network methods for the educational and psychological sciences. Educational Psychologist, 51(3–4), 381–394.
Froehlich.D.E.,Waes.S.V.,& Schafer.H.,(2020).“ Linking Quantitative and Qualitative Network Approaches: A Review of Mixed Methods Social Network Analysis in Education Research".44.244-268.DOI: 10.3102/0091732X20903311
Partelow.S., Nelson.K.,(2020). “Social networks, collective action and the evolution of governance for sustainable tourism on the Gili Islands, Indonesia”. Marine Policy 112 (2020) 103220.
Li, K., F. Mai, R. Shen, and X. Yan, 2020. Measuring corporate culture using machine learning, Review of Financial Studies forthcoming
De Nooy, W.; Mrvar, A.; Batagelj, V. Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2018.
Loon.L.K.,Nawanir.G.,Bakar. Z.A.,Hanaysha.J., (2019) “Strengthening Supply Chain Operational Performance through Relational and Organizational Culture Capabilities”. Int. J Sup. Chain. Mgt. 8(4).90-98
Saudi M.H.M., Juniati S., Kozicka K., Razimi M.S.A., (2019). “Influence of lean practices on supply chain performance”. Polish journal of management studies. 19(1). 353-363. DOI: 10.17512/pjms.2019.19.1.27
Heizer, J., & Render. B., (2013). “Principles of Operations Management”. Pearson Education, Limited. Retrieved from
Kwarteng, A., & Aveh, F. (2018). “Empirical examination of organizational culture on accounting information system and corporate performance: Evidence from a developing country perspective”. Meditari Accountancy Research,26(4), 675-698.
Truong.H.Q.,Sameiro M.,& Fernandes A. C.,(2017).“Supply chain management practices and firms’ operational performance,”International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management,34(2), 176–193.
Modgil.S.,& Sharma.S.,(2016).“Total productive maintenance, total quality management and operational performance,” Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 22(4),353–377.
Marodin.G.A.,(2019)“Lean production and operational performance in the Brazilian automotive supply chain,” Total Quality Management & Business Excellence,30(3-4), 370–385.
Camacho.D.,Lledot.A.P.,Orgaz.G.B., & Pardo.A.G.,(2020). “The four dimensions of social network analysis: an overview of research method, applications, and software tools”. Information Fusion, (63), 88-120.
Jafari, A.A., & Nair, S.S. (2018). “ERP Implementation in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Sultanate of Oman”. 2018 7th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO), 848-854.
Hadidi, M., Hussein,Y.S., Hadidi, S.(2019).”Compariosn between Cloud ERP and Traditional ERP”;Journal of Critical Review.7(3), 140-142
Parmar, A.,(2019,May,20).”12 Types of ERP modules and their uses”.Software Suggest. Retrieved from
Almuhayfith.S., & Shaiti. H., (2020). “The Impact of Enterprise Resource Planning on Business Performance: With the Discussion on Its Relationship with Open Innovation”. J.Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 87(6) . doi:10.3390/joitmc6030087
Lisa.S., (2020). “6 Key Phases of an ERP Implementation Plan”. Oracle Netsuite. Retrieved from
Westerman, G. and Bonnet, D. (2019). Revamping Your Business Through Digital Transformation. MIT Sloan Management Review, pp. 1-5. (2015).
Williams, S.P. and Schubert, P. (2018). Designs for the Digital Workplace. Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 138, pp. 478-485.
Temel, A. and Ayaz, M. (2019). Digital Transformation Design of Banbury Mixing Unit in Tire Manufacturing. Proceedings of International Conference on Applied Automation and Industrial Diagnostics, US & Canada: IEEE, pp. 1-6.
Strutynska, I., Kozbur, G., Dmytrotsa, L., Sorokivska, O. and Melnyk, L. (2019). Influence of Digital Technology on Roadmap Development for Digital Business Transformation. Proceedings of International Conference on Advanced Computer Information Technologies (ACIT), US & Canada: IEEE, pp. 333-337.
Sotnyk, I., Zavrazhnyi, K., Kasianenko, V., Roubík, H. and Sidorov, H. (2020). Investment Management of Business Digital Innovations. Marketing and Management of Innovations, Vol. 1, pp. 95-109.
Menshikova, M.A., Piunova, Y.V. and Makhova, M.N. (2019). Digital Transformation in the Quality Management System. Proceedings of International Conference Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT&QM&IS) 2019, US & Canada: IEEE, pp. 42-46.
Križanić, S., Šestanj-Perić, T. and Tomičić-Pupek, K. (2019). The Changing Role of ERP and CRM in Digital Transformation. Proceedings of International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development 2019, Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency, Varazdin, Croatia / Megatrend University, Belgrade, Serbia / University North, Koprivnica, Croatia / Faculty of Management University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland / Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences Sale - Mohammed V University in Rabat, Morocco, pp. 248-256.
Ali.T., Ra’Ed.M., & Takwa.T., (2015). “Analysis of the Critical Success Factors for Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation from Stakeholders' Perspective: A Systematic Review” . International Business Research. 8(6). 25- 40. doi:10.5539/ibr.v8n4p25
Yang, C., & Su, Y.F. (2011). The relationship between benefits of ERP systems implementation and its impacts on firm performance of SCM. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 22(6), 722 752.
How to Cite
Shaharudin, M. S., Suhaimi, S., Fernando, Y., Wan Husain, W. A. F., & Suparman, S. (2021). Improvement of Green Procurement Performance in the Global Supply Chain: Evidence from Enterprise Resource Planning and Social Network Analysis. International Journal of Industrial Management, 10(1), 173-194.