Correlation of heating profile with calcination temperature for the extraction of nano hydroxyapatite (Nano-HAp) derived from bone
Bone is one of the major sources of hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the form of calcium phosphate. The increasing demand for HAp has brought much interest in research line to find the best method for its production either synthetically or naturally. Calcination of natural bone is a common heat treatment method for production of HAp. However, the optimum temperature of calcination depends on source and heating profile of the bone. Therefore, this study aimed to determine heating profile and the optimum calcination temperature of Nano-hyroxyapatite (Nano-HAp) extracted from spotted sardinella (Amblygaster sirm) bone. Characterization of Nano-HAp was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chromameter and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The composition of protein, ash, moisture and lipid content of raw bone (RB) were 1.08%, 50.98%, 10.47% and 3.78%, respectively. Results demonstrated that the optimum temperature for extracted nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp-1) was 700°C based on yield percentage (55%) and colour changes value (∆E=18). Heating profile of raw bone demonstrated the highest reduction of weight loss percentage (320°C to 610°C=36%); which determined the melting point of the bone that acted as a supporting analysis for calcination. XRD confirmed the crystallinity phase of HAp-1 particle similar to the standard peak of HAp, (PDF No: 1-1008) and comparable with the standard HAp. Based on the heating profile and colour changes value, the findings demonstrated that the calcination of HAp from bone of spotted sardinella (Amblygaster sirm) could be carried out at an optimum temperature of 700°C. Overall findings have suggested that the optimum calcination temperature obtainedmay contribute to the development of optimal method for the extraction of HAp via heat treatment process with different fish species.