Facile Synthetical Method of Squalene from Vegetable Residue


  • Haruna Ibrahim
  • Abubakar Ali Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna




facile, method, synthesis, squalene, vegetable residue


The proscription of the use of shark liver oil for the production of squalene by the International Ocean Conservation and Advocacy Organization (IOCAO) for the protection of sharks in 2005, leads to a great reduction in its quantity in circulation. The quantity in circulation is not enough to meet its growing demand. Therefore, the research for the synthesis of squalene was extended to the use of Gmelina arborea leaves. This was carried out by treating the dry leaves of Gmelina arborea with methanol and a barium chloride catalyst at 90 °C at varying reaction times in minutes. The products were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS revealed the following results; 162.39, 171.98, 145.69, 92.43, 108.32 and 118.83 mg/g for the reaction times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, respectively. The maximum yield achieved was 171.98 mg/g at a reaction time of 20 minutes and the minimum yield was 92.43 mg/g at a time of 40 minutes. This method is fast, safe, cost-efficient and economically viable for squalene production. Hence, Gmelina arborea has the potential for squalene production to meet up with the global demand.

Author Biography

Abubakar Ali, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering