An Emerging Framework: Literacy Training Module for Social Navigation of Refugees

  • Suraini Mohd Ali Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Hazleena Baharun Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Hazlina Abdullah Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Noor Saazai Mat Saad Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Fariza Puteh Behak Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Habibah Ismail Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Dini Farhana Baharudin Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Mohd Zaliridzal Zakaria Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Mohd Muzhafar Idrus Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
Keywords: Literacy, Refugees, Rohingya, Social navigation


Rohingya refugees are a group of people who does not only have well-founded fear that they cannot return home, but are afraid of challenges awaiting them in the host country. Due to their traumatic past experiences, the Rohingya refugees rely much on their own community specifically the community leaders for assistance. However, the lack of community leaders as well as deficient hierarchical engagement with the leaders have created more difficulties for the refugees to seek for help. Social navigation for survival becomes an issue not only because they have language barriers but also internal conflicts on the imagined terrains (the hopes) and the unexpected circumstances (the difficulties) they encounter in the host country. This study aims to develop a literacy training module for Rohingya youth refugees to become social navigators. These refugees are expected to provide horizontal (peer-like) engagement to their community. To meet the aim of the study, 15 Rohingya youth refugees were recruited using a snowball sampling technique. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments were used: guided questionnaires, interviews and baseline tests. The themes from the data suggest that despite the challenges in language, the participants exhibited strong sense of brotherhood with other fellow refugees. Religion has developed a powerful bond that ignites their willingness to extend assistance to their community. However, the participants unfolded their uncertainties on the ways and resources available, to be of help. It is also apparent that, a conceptual framework suitable for this literacy training module for social navigation emerged from the overall data. The framework will serve as a guide to develop a Literacy Module to groom social navigators to help their people, the Rohingya refugees.

Research Articles