Influence of Pulverized Animal Bone and Animal Bone Ash on the Mechanical Properties of Normal Strength Concrete using Response Surface Method


  • Konitufe Claudius Faculty of Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
  • Abubakar Sabo Baba Faculty of Engineering, Federal University Dutsinma, Katsina, Nigeria
  • Aliyu Abubakar Faculty of Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria



Optimization, Concrete, Response Surface, Pulverized Animal Bones, Ash


Global warming, improper solid waste and environment degradations are the major challenges facing humankind. One way to lower the effect global warming is to use less energy intensive materials optimally in construction and proper solid waste disposals to protect the environment from it harmful effects. In this study, the mechanical properties of Pulverized Animal Bone (PAB) and Pulverized Animal Bone Ash (PABA) as cement replacement in concrete were examined and the mechanical properties of concrete containing PAB/PABA optimised using response surfaces methodology (RSM). Central composite Design (CCD) method of experimental design of RSM was used to design the experiment using the key variables in the mechanical properties of Pulverised Animals Bone Ash concrete (PABC) and Pulverised Animals Bone Concrete Ash (PABAC). The variables considered in the model’s development are Bone powders percentages replacement of cement in concrete at five levels (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% levels) and curing age (3, 7, 28, 60 and 90-days). The Test conducted on fresh PABC/BAPAC was slump test while on hardened concrete were, Density, water absorption and compressive strength tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates that the variables PAB/PABA and curing age influence the variability in the generated models and all the models are statistically significant at 95% level in all the factors levels. Numerical method of optimisation was applied to determine optimum mix proportions for PABC/PABAC.  The optimum mix for PABC was obtained by addition of 5.00% PAB after curing for 42.24-days with 0.736 desirability. In PABAC, 5.00% PABA and 44.87-days curing with desirability 0.736 was the optimum.