The study on the influences of residual stresses on fatigue crack propagation in titanium alloy specimens


  • A. Zangeneh Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 350, Hafez Ave, Valiasr Square, 1591634311, Tehran, Iran. Phone: +9866405844; Fax: +9866419736
  • I. Sattarifar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 350, Hafez Ave, Valiasr Square, 1591634311, Tehran, Iran. Phone: +9866405844; Fax: +9866419736
  • M. Noghabi Iran Space Institute, No. 182, Shahid Teymuri Blvd., Tarasht, 1459777511, Tehran, Iran



Fatigue crack growth, Residual stress, Titanium alloy, J-integral


Fatigue crack growth is a harmful physical phenomenon in engineering materials that can be intensified by the presence of tensile residual stresses. In the present study, the effect of tensile residual stresses on the fatigue crack growth in single-edge notched bending specimens of Ti- 6Al-4V is studied. Mechanical residual stresses were created by applying a 4-point bending process. The residual stresses were evaluated utilizing the hole drilling approach under the ASTM E-837 standard. Fatigue crack propagation was measured by experimental test in specimens with and without initial residual stresses. A finite element analysis was conducted using commercial finite element software to study the plastic zone at the crack tip and fracture mechanic parameters. It was observed that the residual stress field is redistributed after each step of crack propagation. The tensile residual stress in front of the crack tip decreased from near yield strength to approximately 30% of yield strength. The tensile residual stresses near the yield strength in Ti-6Al-4V increased the fatigue crack propagation rate by approximately 50%.


G. H. Farrahi, J. L. Lebrijn, and D. Couratin, “Effect of shot peening on residual stress and fatigue life of a spring steel,” Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 211–220, 1995.

I. B. Owunna and A. E. Ikpe, “Evaluation of induced residual stresses on AISI 1020 low carbon steel plate from experimental and FEM approach during TIG welding process,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 4415–4433, 2019.

R. H. Wagoner and J.-L. Chenot, Fundamentals of metal forming. Wiley, 1996.

G. H. Farrahi, G. H. Majzoobi, F. Hosseinzadeh, and S. M. Harati, “Experimental evaluation of the effect of residual stress field on crack growth behaviour in C(T) specimen,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 73, no. 13, pp. 1772–1782, Sep. 2006.

Z. Semari et al., “Effect of residual stresses induced by cold expansion on the crack growth in 6082 aluminum alloy,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 99, pp. 159–168, Feb. 2013.

M. A. A. Wahab, G. R. R. Rohrsheim, and J. H. H. Park, “Experimental study on the influence of overload induced residual stress field on fatigue crack growth in aluminium alloy,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 153–154, pp. 945–951, Nov. 2004.

D. H. Stuart, M. R. Hill, and J. C. Newman, “Correlation of one-dimensional fatigue crack growth at cold-expanded holes using linear fracture mechanics and superposition,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 1389–1406, 2011.

S. R. Vempati, K. B. Raju, and K. V. Subbaiah, “Simulation of Ti-6Al-4V cruciform welded joints subjected to fatigue load using XFEM,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 5371–5389, 2019.

E. C. for Standardization, “European Standard, EN 13445-3, Unfired Pressure Vessels—Part 3: Design.” European Committee for Standardization Brussels, Belgium, 2002.

M. Noghabi, I. Sattari-far, and H. H. Toudeshky, “The study of redistribution in residual stresses during fatigue crack growth,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 8565–8579, 2021.

M. Noghabi, I. Sattarifar, and H. Hosseini-Toudeshky, “The study on the overloading effect on fatigue crack growth considering residual stress relaxation in Al 5456-H38,” Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, pp. 1–20, 2022.

D. M. Neto, M. F. Borges, F. V. Antunes, and J. Jesus, “Mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to single overloads,” Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, vol. 114, 2021.

S. Nagaraja et al., “Influence of heat treatment and reinforcements on tensile characteristics of aluminium aa 5083/silicon carbide/fly ash composites,” Materials, vol. 14, no. 18, p. 5261, 2021.

B. N. Sharath et al., “Multi ceramic particles inclusion in the aluminium matrix and wear characterization through experimental and response surface-artificial neural networks.,” Materials (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 14, no. 11, May 2021.

H. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and J. Wu, “Experimental investigation of overload effects on fatigue crack growth behaviour of 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 43, no. February, pp. 1–15, 2020.

P. S. Song and G. L. Sheu, “Retardation of fatigue crack propagation by indentation technique,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol. 79, no. 11, pp. 725–733, 2002.

R. Ghfiri, A. Amrouche, I. Abdellatif, and G. Mesmacque, “Fatigue life estimation after crack repair in 6005 A-T6 aluminum alloy using the cold expansion hole technique,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 911–916, 2000.

E. Hombergsmeier, V. Holzinger, and U. C. Heckenberger, “Fatigue crack retardation in LSP and SP treated aluminium specimens,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 891–892, pp. 986–991, 2014.

Y. Mutoh, G. H. Fair, B. Noble, and R. B. Waterhouse, “The effect of residual stresses induced by shot‐peening on fatigue crack propagation in two high strength aluminium alloys,” Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 261–272, 1987.

D. Odhiambo and H. Soyama, “Cavitation shotless peening for improvement of fatigue strength of carbonized steel,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 25, no. 9–11, pp. 1217–1222, 2003.

B. B. Verma and P. K. Ray, “Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 301–307, 2002.

H. Wu, A. Imad, N. Benseddiq, J. Tupiassu Pinho de Castro, and M. Antonio Meggiolaro, “On the prediction of the residual fatigue life of cracked structures repaired by the stop-hole method,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 670–677, 2010.

ASTM E837, Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method. ASTM International, 2020.

P. Fu, S. M. Johnson, R. R. Settgast, and C. R. Carrigan, “Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 88, pp. 90–107, 2012.

P. P. Lynn and A. R. Ingraffea, “Transition elements to be used with quarter-point crack-tip elements,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1031–1036, 1978.

L. Banks-Sills, “Application of the finite element method to linear elastic fracture mechanics,” 1991.

C. Garcia, T. Lotz, M. Martinez, A. Artemev, R. Alderliesten, and R. Benedictus, “Fatigue crack growth in residual stress fields,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 87, pp. 326–338, 2016.

J. R. Rice, “A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 379–386, Jun. 1968.

T. L. Anderson, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, Third Edit. CRC Press, 2005.

E. F. Rybicki and M. F. Kanninen, “A finite element calculation of stress intensity factors by a modified crack closure integral,” Engineering fracture mechanics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 931–938, 1977.

ASTM Standard E647 − 13a, “Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates,” American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 1–50, 2014.

Y. Abdelaziz, S. Benkheira, T. Rikioui, and A. Mekkaoui, “A double degenerated finite element for modeling the crack tip singularity,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 4031–4039, 2010.

K. Solanki and S. R. Daniewicz, “Finite element analysis of plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure : an overview,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 149–171, 2004.

K. Solanki, S. R. Daniewicz, and J. C. Newman, “Finite element modeling of plasticity-induced crack closure with emphasis on geometry and mesh refinement effects,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 1475–1489, 2003.

ASTM Standard E1820, “Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness,” ASTM Book of Standards, vol. i, no. January, pp. 1–54, 2013.

C. Lee and K. Chang, “Finite element computation of fatigue growth rates for mode I cracks subjected to welding residual stresses,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 78, no. 13, pp. 2505–2520, 2011.

J. E. Larue and S. R. Daniewicz, “Predicting the effect of residual stress on fatigue crack growth,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 508–515, 2007.



2022-12-27 — Updated on 2022-12-29


How to Cite

A. Zangeneh, I. Sattarifar, and M. Noghabi, “The study on the influences of residual stresses on fatigue crack propagation in titanium alloy specimens”, J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 9187–9196, Dec. 2022.