Design, development, calibration, and testing of indigenously developed strain gauge based dynamometer for cutting force measurement in the milling process
In this work, a milling dynamometer based on strain gauge with an octagonal and square ring was designed and tested. Strain gauges were attached with the mechanical rings to detect the deformation, during the machining process. Wheatstone bridge circuit was equipped with gauges to acquire the strain as voltage owing to the deformation of mechanical rings when machining takes place. The finite element analysis (FEA) was used to identify the location of maximum deformation and stress. The direction of rings and location of gauges were decided to increase the sensitivity and decrease the cross-sensitivity. Then, the cutting force was acquired through NI 6221 M series data acquisition (DAQ) card. The dynamometer had undergone a cycle of tests to verify its static and dynamic characteristics. The metrological characterization was performed according to the calibration procedure based on ISO 376 – 2011 standard. The cutting force was measured with both the dynamometers through milling experiments based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array and the results were recorded. The measured cutting force varied from 300 N to 550 N. The obtained results depicted that low-cost milling dynamometer was reliable to measure the three component machining force. Overall, the square ring based dynamometer provides the better static and dynamic characteristics in terms of linearity, cross-sensitivity (4%), uncertainty (0.054%), and natural frequency (362.41 rev/s).
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