Characterisation, Performance and Optimisation of Nanocellulose Metalworking Fluid (MWF) for Green Machining Process
Keywords:Hybrid nanocoolant, Machining, Lubricant, Optimisation, Thermal and tribological properties
The present research attempts to develop a hybrid coolant by mixing alumina nanoparticles with cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) into ethylene glycol-water (60:40) and investigate the viability of formulated hybrid nanocoolant (CNC-Al2O3-EG-Water) towards enhancing the machining behavior. The two-step method has been adapted to develop the hybrid nanocoolant at various volume concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 0.9%). Results indicated a significant enhancement in thermal properties and tribological behaviour of the developed hybrid coolant. The thermal conductivity improved by 20-25% compared to the metal working fluid (MWF) with thermal conductivity of 0.55 W/m℃. Besides, a reduction in wear and friction coefficient was observed with the escalation in the nanoparticle concentration. The machining performance of the developed hybrid coolant was evaluated using Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in the turning of mild steel. A regression model was developed to assess the deviations in the tool flank wear and surface roughness in terms of feed, cutting speed, depth of the cut, and nanoparticle concentration using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The mathematical modeling shows that cutting speed has the most significant impact on surface roughness and tool wear, followed by feed rate. The depth of cut does not affect surface roughness or tool wear. Surface roughness achieved 24% reduction, 39% enhancement in tool length of cut, and 33.33% improvement in tool life span. From this, the surface roughness was primarily affected by spindle cutting speed, feed rate, and then cutting depth while utilising either conventional water or composite nanofluid as a coolant. The developed hybrid coolant manifestly improved the machining behaviour.
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