Material Properties Analysis with Addition of Nanofibres for Air Intake Filtration in Internal Combustion Engines
The aim of this study is to provide an experimental properties evaluation of a standard filter material (cellulose) and materials with fiber layer addition with small diameters (nanofibers). Filter media, including cellulose, used in the internal combustion engine inlet air filtration are made of high diameter fibres, approx. 15 µm. Significantly higher separation and filtration efficiency performance are obtained for materials with lower fibre diameters (nanofibres), however, at the expense of a significantly higher pressure drop, affecting the engine performance. Filter media manufacturers mainly specify the structure parameters (pore size, air permeability and thickness), without giving any information on the dust filtration performance and rate. The literature includes test results for models of different filter media structures. Filtration process modelling using polydisperse dust with particles of different shape and density and irregular filter media structure is possible using advanced computer techniques, however, the process is complex and requires many simplifications. Test results can be applied directly in the automotive industry. The data can be obtained by experimental tests on filter medium specimens, complete filter elements or air filters which are costly and time-consuming tests, however, those test methods are the most reliable. Conditions and testing methodology for intake air filter materials used in internal combustion engines were developed. Filtration and flow resistance efficiency and accuracy were done depending on test dust mass stopped per unit area. Tested materials filtration efficiency was assessed by a filtration quality factor, which includes experimentally determined efficiency and accuracy as well as flow resistance values. Much higher efficiency and filtration accuracy of dust grains below 5 µm in filtration materials with nanofibers addition compared to standard filtration material (filter paper) were demonstrated. For the same flow resistance values, filter materials with nanofibers addition accumulate smaller dust mass than standard filter paper. Usage of materials with nanofibers addition used in motor vehicles intake air filtration ensures their high efficiency and accuracy. It minimises its components wear, but at the expense of faster flow resistance increase, which shortens filter life and increases filter replacement frequency. Results obtained during the experimental research partly fill the gap when it comes to the basic material properties used in internal combustion engines intake air filter partitions production.
Copyright (c) 2021 T. Dziubak
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