Effect of pH condition during hydrothermal synthesis on the properties of hydroxyapatite from eggshell waste
Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders were synthesized using eggshell waste through hydrothermal method to develop bioceramics materials for medical applications. The effects of the pH conditions during the synthesis on the phase behaviour, crystallite size, crystallinity and morphology of as-synthesized ceramic powders were evaluated. The XRD patterns showed that HA was only the main phase present in the as-synthesized powder after being calcined at 400°C. However, EDX measurement detected the presence of Mg as trace elements which originated from the eggshell as starting materials. The crystallite size and crystallinity of the HA powders were increased when the powders were synthesized in acidic condition as compared to basic condition. FESEM images showed that HA powder with nano-sized rods and spherical morphologies were obtained from the powders that were synthesized at pH 5, while the powder particles synthesized at basic condition at pH 9 produced elongated rod-shape particles. The PSD results showed that the synthesized HA were in agglomerated form which were also confirmed by FESEM images.
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