Manuscript Preparation

These instructions are written in a form that satisfies all of the formatting requirements for the author manuscript. Please use them as a template in preparing your manuscript. Authors must take special care to follow these instructions concerning margins. The basic instructions are simple:

  • Manuscript shall be formatted for an A4 size page.
  • The top, bottom, left and right margins shall be 20 mm.
  • The text shall have both the left and right margins justified.



The manuscript should be organized in the following order: Title of the paper, Authors' names and affiliation, Abstract, Key Words, Introduction, Body of the paper (in sequential headings), Conclusion, Acknowledgements (where applicable), References, and Appendices (where applicable).

A. The Title

The title is centered on the page and is SENTENCE CASE AND SET IN BOLDFACE (Font: Arial Narrow, Font size 16 pt). It should adequately describe the content of the paper. An abbreviated title of fewer than 60 characters (including spaces) should also be suggested.

B. Author’s Name and Affiliation

The author's name(s)  should be aligned to the left of the page (Font: Arial Narrow, Font size 10 pt). A blank line is required between the title and the author's name(s). Last names should be spelled out in full and succeeded by author's initials. The author's affiliation, complete mailing address, and e-mail address (all in font size 9 pt) are provided below. Phone and fax numbers should be provided.

C. Abstract

A nonmathematical abstract, not exceeding 200 words, is required for all papers. It should be an abbreviated, accurate presentation of the contents of the paper. It should contain sufficient information to enable readers to decide whether they should obtain and read the entire paper. Do not cite references in the abstract.

D. Keywords

The author should provide a list of three to five keywords that clearly describe the subject matter of the paper.

E. Text Layout

The manuscript must be typed single spacing. Use extra line spacing between equations, illustrations, figures, and tables. The body of the text should be prepared using Times New Roman. The font size used for the preparation of the manuscript must be 10 points. The first paragraph following a heading should not be indented. The following paragraphs must be indented 10 mm. Note that there is no line spacing between paragraphs unless a subheading is used. Symbols for physical quantities in the text should be written in italics.

F. Section Headings

Section headings should be typed centered on the page and in capital letters only. The type, fonts and style above (Arial Narrow 10 point bold) are an example of a section heading. Do not underline section headings. A bold font should be used for section headings. The headings should be numbered.

G. Subheadings

Subheadings should be positioned at the left margin, in a bold-faced font the same size as the main text (Arial Narrow 9 point) with single line spacing above and below. The first letter of each word in the subheading should be capitalized.

H. Sub-subheadings

Sub-subheadings should be typed using italic font the same size as that used for the body of the text (Arial Narrow 9 point italics). Only the first letter in the subheading should be capitalized. Note that a blank line precedes and follows the subheading.

I. Equations and Mathematical Expressions

Equation numbers should appear in parentheses and be numbered consecutively. All equation numbers must appear on the right-hand side of the equation and should be referred to within the text. Two different types of styles can be used for equations and mathematical expressions. They are:

  • In-line style
  • Display style

In-line style

In-line equations/expressions are embedded in paragraphs of the text. For example, E = mc2. In-line equations should not be numbered.

Display style

Equations in display format are separated from the paragraphs of text. They should be flushed to the centered of the column. Fractional powers should be used instead of root signs. A slash (/) should be used instead of a horizontal line for fractions, whenever possible; for example, use 2/3 for two-thirds. Refer to equations in the text as " Eq.(1)" or, if at the beginning of a sentence, as " Equation (1)". Vectors should be typed boldface. Do not use arrows, wavy-line underscoring, etc.

J. Figures and Tables

Figures (diagrams and photographs) should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers. They should be placed in the text soon after the point where they are referenced. Figures should be centered in a column and should have a figure caption placed underneath. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Figure 1” and are in upper and lower case letters. When referring to a figure in the body of the text, the abbreviation "Figure" is used Illustrations must be submitted in digital format, with a good resolution. Table captions appear centered above the table in upper and lower case letters. When referring to a table in the text, "Table" with the proper number is used. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Table 1” and are in upper and lower case letters. Tables are numbered consecutively and independently of any figures. All figures and tables must be incorporated into the text (in Portrait orientation).

K. Units

The use of SI units is strongly recommended and mixed units are to be avoided.

L. Conclusion

A conclusion section must be included and should indicate clearly the advantages, limitations and possible applications of the paper. Discuss future work.

M. Acknowledgements

An acknowledgment section may be presented after the conclusion if desired. Individuals or units other than authors who were of direct help in the work could be acknowledged by a brief statement following the text.

N. Reference Formatting

There are strict requirements on reference formatting at the submission stage. The author must prepare the manuscript following the IEEE reference format.  Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be also applied to the accepted article at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. For more details, please see the following examples. 

O. Reference Style

Citation in text

Document your study throughout the text by indicates references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given. 

Reference List

Number the references (numbers should be in square brackets) in the reference list in the order to they appeared in the text. List of references indents 10 mm from the second line of each reference. Personal communications and unpublished data are not acceptable references.

P. References Writing Examples

Reference to a Journal Papers:

[1]      N. A. A. Sathari, L. H. Shah, and A. R. Razali, “Investigation of single-pass/double-pass techniques on friction stir welding of aluminium,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 7, no. 1, 2014, doi: 10.15282/jmes.7.2014.4.0102.

[2]      L. H. Shah, N. H. Othman, and A. Gerlich, “Review of research progress on aluminium–magnesium dissimilar friction stir welding,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 256–270, 2018, doi: 10.1080/13621718.2017.1370193.

Note that Journal titles should not be abbreviated and italicized.

Reference to a Book:

[4]      R. S. Mishra and M. W. Mahoney, Friction Stir Welding and Processing, 1st ed. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International, 2007.

Note that the title of the book is sentence case and italicized.

Reference to a Chapter in an Edited Book:

[5]      K. Author, "Title of chapter in the book," in Title of Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx-xxx.

Note that the title of the book is italicized and sentence case.

Reference to Proceedings Papers

[6]     A. C. Nunes, “The evolution of friction stir welding theory at Marshall Space Flight Center,” in 9th International Friction Stir Welding Symposium, 2012, pp. 1–19.

Reference to Web Pages

[7]     Title, Source, Date. [Online]. Available:


[8]     Treatment episode dataset: Discharges (TEDS-D): Concatenated, 2006 to 2009, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, Aug. 2013. [Online]. Available: