Manuscript Preparation

These instructions are written in a form that satisfies all the formatting requirements for the author's manuscript. Please use them as a template in preparing your manuscript. Authors must take special care to follow these instructions concerning margins. The basic instructions are simple:

  • Manuscript shall be formatted for an A4 size page.
  • The top, left and right margins shall be 30 mm.
  • The bottom margin shall be 25 mm.
  • The text shall have both the left and right margins justified.


The manuscript should be organized in the following order: title of the paper, authors' names and affiliation, abstract, keywords, nomenclature (where applicable), introduction, body of the paper (in sequential headings), conclusion, acknowledgement, references, and appendices (where applicable).


The title is centered on the page and is set in boldface (font size 12 pt). The first letter of each word in the title should be capitalized. It should adequately describe the content of the paper. An abbreviated title of less than 60 characters (including spaces) should also be suggested.


The author's name(s) follows the title and is also centered on the page (font size 12 pt). A blank line is required between the title and the author's name(s). Last names should be spelled out in full and succeeded by author's initials. The author's affiliation, complete mailing address, and e-mail address (all in font size 12 pt) are provided below. Phone and fax numbers are also appeared.


A nonmathematical abstract, not exceeding 200 words, is required for all papers. It should be an abbreviated, accurate presentation of the contents of the paper. It should contain sufficient information to enable readers to decide whether they should obtain and read the entire paper. Do not cite references in the abstract.


The author should provide a list of three to six keywords that clearly describe the subject matter of the paper.


The manuscript must be typed single spacing. Use extra line spacing between equations, illustrations, figures, and tables. The body of the text should be prepared using Times New Roman. The font size used for the preparation of the manuscript must be 12 points. The first paragraph following a heading should not be indented. The following paragraphs must be indented 10 mm. Note that there is no line spacing between paragraphs unless a subheading is used. Symbols for physical quantities in the text should be written in italics.


Section headings should be typed centered on the page and in capital letters only. The type, fonts and style above (Times New Roman 12 point bold) are an example of a section heading. Do not underline section headings. A bold font should be used for section headings.


Subheadings should be positioned at the left margin, in a bold-faced font the same size as the main text (Times New Roman 12 point) with single line spacing above and below. The first letter of each word in the subheading should be capitalized.


Sub-subheadings should be typed using italic font the same size as that used for the body of the text (Times New Roman 12 point italics). Only the first letter of the subheading should be capitalized. Note that a blank line precedes and follows the subheading.


Equation numbers should appear in parentheses and be numbered consecutively. All equation numbers must appear on the right-hand side of the equation and should be referred to within the text. Two different types of styles can be used for equations and mathematical expressions. They are:

  • In-line style
  • Display style.

In-line style

In-line equations/expressions are embedded in paragraphs of the text. For example, E = mc2. In-line equations should not be numbered.

Display style

Equations in display format are separated from the paragraphs of text. They should be flushed to the left of the column. Fractional powers should be used instead of root signs. A slash (/) should be used instead of a horizontal line for fractions, whenever possible; for example, use 2/3 for two-thirds. Refer to equations in the text as " Eq.(1)" or, if at the beginning of a sentence, as " Equation (1)". Vectors should be typed boldface. Do not use arrows, wavy-line underscoring, etc.


Figures (diagrams and photographs) should be numbered consecutively using arabicnumbers. They should be placed in the text soon after the point where they are referenced. Figures should be centered in a column and should have a figure caption placed underneath. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Figure 1” and are in upper and lowercase letters. When referring to a figure in the body of the text, the abbreviation "Figure" is used Illustrations must be submitted in digital format, with a good resolution. Table captions appear centered above the table in upper and lowercase letters. When referring to a table in the text, "Table" with the proper number is used. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Table 1” and are in upper and lowercase letters. Tables are numbered consecutively and independently of any figures. All figures and tables must be incorporated into the text (in portrait orientation).


The use of SI units is strongly recommended, and mixed units are to be avoided.


A conclusion section must be included and should indicate clearly the advantages, limitations and possible applications of the paper. Discuss about future work.


An acknowledgement section may be presented after the conclusion, if desired. Individuals or units other than authors who were of direct help in the work could be acknowledged by a brief statement following the text.


There are strict requirements on reference formatting at submission stage. Author should be preparing references according to following examples and the reference style should be consistent where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be also applied to the accepted article at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.


Citation in text 

Document your study throughout the text by indicates references by number(s) in square brackets (Example; Rahman and Noor [1]; Rahman [2]; Rahman et al. [3] … ) in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.

Reference List

Number the references (numbers should be in square brackets) in the reference list in the order to they appeared in the text. List of references indents 10 mm from the second line of each reference. Personal communications and unpublished data are not acceptable references.


Reference to journal papers:

[1] Hamada KI, Rahman MM, Aziz ARA. Characteristics of the time-averaged overall heat transfer in a direct injection hydrogen fueled engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2012; 38(11): 4816-4830.

[2] Rahman MM, Ariffin AK. Effects of surface finish and treatment on the fatigue behaviour of vibrating cylinder block using frequency response approach. Journal of Zhejiang University of Science A, 2006; 7(3): 352-360.

[3] Thring RH. Homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. SAE Technical Paper: 892068; 1989.

**Note that Journal titles should not be abbreviated and italicized.

Reference to a book:

[4] Juvinall RC, Marshek KM. Fundamentals of machine component design. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 2011.

[5] Stephens RI, Fatemi A, Stephens RR, Fuchs HO. Metal fatigue in engineering. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 2000.

**Note that the title of the book is sentence case and not-italicized.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

[6] Barky ME, Zhang S. Fatigue spot welds. In: Lee YL, Pan J, Hathaway RB, Barkey ME, editors. Fatigue testing and analysis: Theory and practice, New York: Butterworth Heinrahmanemann, 2005, p 285-311.

 **Note that the title of the book is non-italicized and sentence case.

Reference to proceedings papers:

[7] Rahman MM, Bakar RA, Sani MSM, Noor MM. Investigation into surface treatment on fatigue life for cylinder block of linear engine using frequency response approach. In: 15th International Congress on Sound and Vibrations, Daejeon, South Korea, pp. 2119- 2127; 2008.

[8] Kamal M, Rahman MM. Fatigue life estimation based on continuum mechanics theory with application of genetic algorithm. In: 1st International Conference on Automotive Innovation and Green Energy Vehicle, Kuantan, Malaysia; 26-27 August, 2014.

Reference to Web Pages:

[9] Felippa CA. Advanced finite element methods. Retrieved from /AFM.d/Home.html; 25 August, 2013.

[10] Rockwell Automation. Arena. Retrieved from; 21 July, 2014.


Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for final checking. Corrections to the proofs must be restricted to printer’s errors: any other changes to the text, in equations or grammar, may be charged to the author. Proofs should be returned to the editors within three days of receipt to minimize the risk of the author’s contribution having to be held over to a later issue. The editors do not accept responsibility for the correctness of published contents. It is the author’s responsibility to check the content at proof stage.


A policy of screening for plagiarism has been performed using platform.