Manuscript Preparation

The authors are provided with a paper template, which is downloadable HERE. Authors are encouraged to use and edit the template, rather than developing their own file.


The manuscript should be organized in the following order: title of the paper, authors' names and affiliation, abstract, keywords, nomenclature (where applicable), introduction, the body of the paper (in sequential headings), conclusion, acknowledgment, references, and appendices (where applicable).


The title is centered on the page and is set in boldface (font size 12 pt). The first letter of each word in the title should be capitalized. It should adequately describe the content of the paper. An abbreviated title of fewer than 60 characters (including spaces) should also be suggested.


A nonmathematical abstract, not exceeding 200 words, is required for all papers. It should be an abbreviated, accurate presentation of the contents of the paper. It should contain sufficient information to enable readers to decide whether they should obtain and read the entire paper. Do not cite references in the abstract.


The author should provide a list of three to six keywords that clearly describe the subject matter of the paper.


The manuscript must be typed single spacing. Use extra line spacing between equations, illustrations, figures, and tables. The body of the text should be prepared using Times New Roman. The font size used for the preparation of the manuscript must be 12 points. The first paragraph following a heading should not be indented. The following paragraphs must be indented 10 mm. Note that there is no line spacing between paragraphs unless a subheading is used. Symbols for physical quantities in the text should be written in italics.


Section headings should be typed centered on the page and in capital letters only. The type, fonts and style above (Times New Roman 12 point bold) are an example of a section heading. Do not underline section headings. A bold font should be used for section headings.


Subheadings should be positioned at the left margin, in a bold-faced font the same size as the main text (Times New Roman 12 point) with single line spacing above and below. The first letter of each word in the subheading should be capitalized.


Sub-subheadings should be typed using italic font the same size as that used for the body of the text (Times New Roman 12 point italics). Only the first letter of the subheading should be capitalized. Note that a blank line precedes and follows the subheading.


Equation numbers should appear in parentheses and be numbered consecutively. All equation numbers must appear on the right-hand side of the equation and should be referred to within the text. Two different types of styles can be used for equations and mathematical expressions. They are:

  • In-line style
  • Display style.

In-line style

In-line equations/expressions are embedded in paragraphs of the text. For example, E = mc2. In-line equations should not be numbered.

Display style

Equations in display format are separated from the paragraphs of text. They should be flushed to the left of the column. Fractional powers should be used instead of root signs. A slash (/) should be used instead of a horizontal line for fractions, whenever possible; for example, use 2/3 for two-thirds. Refer to equations in the text as " Eq.(1)" or, if at the beginning of a sentence, as " Equation (1)". Vectors should be typed boldface. Do not use arrows, wavy-line underscoring, etc.


Figures (diagrams and photographs) should be numbered consecutively using arabicnumbers. They should be placed in the text soon after the point where they are referenced. Figures should be centered in a column and should have a figure caption placed underneath. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Figure 1” and are in upper and lowercase letters. When referring to a figure in the body of the text, the abbreviation "Figure" is used Illustrations must be submitted in digital format, with a good resolution. Table captions appear centered above the table in upper and lowercase letters. When referring to a table in the text, "Table" with the proper number is used. Captions should be centered in the column, in the format “Table 1” and are in upper and lowercase letters. Tables are numbered consecutively and independently of any figures. All figures and tables must be incorporated into the text (in portrait orientation).


The use of SI units is strongly recommended, and mixed units are to be avoided.


A conclusion section must be included and should indicate clearly the advantages, limitations and possible applications of the paper. Discuss about future work.


An acknowledgement section may be presented after the conclusion, if desired. Individuals or units other than authors who were of direct help in the work could be acknowledged by a brief statement following the text.


There are strict requirements on reference formatting at submission stage. Author should be preparing references according to following examples and the reference style should be consistent where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be also applied to the accepted article at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.


The APA format 7 edition referencing system is to be used. In the body of the text a paper is to be
referred to by the author’s surname with the year of publication in parentheses. References should be
listed together at the end of the paper in alphabetical order by author’s surname. List of references indents
10 mm (or 0.39 inch) from the second line of each reference. Personal communications and unpublished
data are not acceptable references.
Journal Papers
Hamada, K. I., Rahman, M. M. & Aziz, A. R. A. (2012). Characteristics of the time-averaged overall heat
transfer in a Direct Injection Hydrogen Fueled Engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38(11), 4816-4830.
Rahman, M. M. & Ariffin, A. K. (2006). Effects of surface finish and treatment on the fatigue behaviour
of vibrating cylinder block using frequency response approach. Journal of Zhejiang University of Science
A, 7(3), 352-360.
Journal titles should not be abbreviated. Note that journal title is set in italics.
Juvinall, R. C. & Marshek, K. M. (2000). Fundamentals of machine component design. New York: John
Wiley and Sons.
Stephens, R. I., Fatemi, A., Stephens, R. R. & Fuchs, H. O. (2000). Metal fatigue in engineering. New
York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Note that the title of the book is italicized and sentence case.
Chapters in Books
Barky, M. E. & Zhang, S. (2005). Fatigue spot welds. Fatigue testing and analysis. Lee et al. (Eds.). New
York: Butterworth Heinrahmanemann, 285-311.
Note that the title of the book is italicized and sentence case.
Proceedings Papers
Rahman, M. M., Bakar, R. A., Sani, M. S. M. & Noor, M. M. (2008). Investigation into surface treatment
on fatigue life for cylinder block of linear engine using frequency response approach. 15th International
Congress on Sound and Vibrations, 2119-2127.
Web Pages
Felippa, C. A. (2011). Advanced finite element methods. Retrieved
from /AFM.d/Home.html.

Rockwell Automation. Arena. Retrieved from IN-TEXT CITATION
Document your study throughout the text by citing the author (or brief title if there is no author) and year
of the works you researched. The reader can then locate the complete source in the alphabetical reference
list at the end of your work. The in-text citation is highlighted in this example:
One author
Rahman (2010) claimed that … or the theory was first put forward in 1960 (Rahman, 2010).
Two authors
Always cite both authors.
Example: Rahman and Noor (2009) found … or The majority found … (Rahman & Noor, 2009).
Multiple authors for 3 or more authors
a full stop after “al”) and the year.
Example: Rahman et al. (2009) or (Rahman et al., 2009).
Multiple works (when two or more references are cited to make the same point)
List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical
order by the first author’s surname. Separate the citations with semicolons.
Example: (Rahman, 2010; Rahman & Kadirgama, 2009; Rahman et al., 2011)
Multiple works by the same author
Arrange two or more works by the same author by year of publication. Give the author’s surname once; for
each subsequent work, give only the date.
Example: University research has indicated that… (Rahman, 2007, 2010).
Plagiarism Checking
A policy of screening for plagiarism will be performed using the Turnitin platform.